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Mastoiditis: Symptoms & Treatments

One of the most important structures in your inner ear is the mastoid bone. Although it’s called a bone, the mastoid doesn’t have the typical structure associated with other bones in the human body. It’s made of air sacs and resembles a sponge, rather than being solid and rigid like most bones.

Mastoiditis is a serious infection in the mastoid process, which is the hard, prominent bone just behind and under the ear. Ear infections that people fail to treat cause most cases of mastoiditis. The condition is rare but can become life-threatening without treatment.

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Symptoms:

  • drainage from the affected ear
  • ear pain
  • fever
  • headache
  • hearing loss in the affected ear
  • redness, swelling, and tenderness behind the affected ear

Mastoiditis is a potentially life-threatening condition. Initial treatment for a severe infection may include hospitalization. You will receive antibiotic medication through a vein in your arm, or intravenously, while at the hospital. You will need to take oral antibiotics at home for several days after leaving the hospital.

If the infection doesn’t clear up after treatment with antibiotics, surgery may be necessary. Surgery may involve removing part of your mastoid bone to drain the infection. Doctors may also need to drain your middle ear of infected fluid to successfully treat the infection.

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF): Causes, Symptoms & Treatments

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a type of lung disease that results in scarring (fibrosis) of the lungs for an unknown reason. Over time, the scarring gets worse and it becomes hard to take in a deep breath and the lungs cannot take in enough oxygen. The lung damage caused by pulmonary fibrosis can’t be repaired, but medications and therapies can sometimes help ease symptoms and improve quality of life. For some people, a lung transplant might be appropriate.

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fig— IPF bronchial Tube

Symptoms

  • Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
  • A dry cough
  • Fatigue
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Aching muscles and joints
  • Widening and rounding of the tips of the fingers or toes (clubbing)

Causes: Occupational and environmental factors

Long-term exposure to a number of toxins and pollutants can damage your lungs. These include:

  • Silica dust, tobacco smoke, viruses
  • Asbestos fibers
  • Hard metal dusts
  • Coal dust
  • Grain dust
  • Bird and animal droppings

Radiation treatments

Some people who receive radiation therapy for lung or breast cancer show signs of lung damage months or sometimes years after the initial treatment. The severity of the damage may depend on:

  • How much of the lung was exposed to radiation
  • The total amount of radiation administered
  • Whether chemotherapy also was used
  • The presence of underlying lung disease

Medications

Many drugs can damage your lungs, especially medications such as:

  • Chemotherapy drugs. Drugs designed to kill cancer cells, such as methotrexate (Trexall, Otrexup, others) and cyclophosphamide, can also damage lung tissue.
  • Heart medications. Some drugs used to treat irregular heartbeats, such as amiodarone (Cordarone, Nexterone, Pacerone), may harm lung tissue.
  • Some antibiotics. Antibiotics such as nitrofurantoin (Macrobid, Macrodantin, others) or ethambutol can cause lung damage.
  • Anti-inflammatory drugs. Certain anti-inflammatory drugs such as rituximab (Rituxan) or sulfasalazine (Azulfidine) can cause lung damage.

Medical conditions

Lung damage can also result from a number of conditions, including:

  • Dermatomyositis
  • Polymyositis
  • Mixed connective tissue disease
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Scleroderma
  • Pneumonia

Many people with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis may also have gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) — a condition that occurs when acid from your stomach flows back into your esophagus.

 

Rheumatic Heart disease: Causes, Symptoms & Treatments

Rheumatic fever can lead to a condition known as rheumatic heart disease. This is usually a thickening and stenosis of one or more of the heart valves and often requires surgery to repair or replace the involved valve(s). Rheumatic valve disease is a thickening and stenosis of one or more of the heart valves and often requires surgery to repair or replace the affected valve(s). The valve could become leaky instead of stenotic as well.

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Symptoms:

The symptoms of rheumatic heart disease vary and damage to the heart often is not readily noticeable. When symptoms do appear, they may depend on the extent and location of the heart damage. Typically, symptoms of rheumatic fever appear about two weeks after the onset of an untreated strep throat infection. Apart from the sore throat caused by the strep infection, children have a fever and feel ill. Commonly, the child will have a very painful, swollen and red joint — usually a large joint like a knee, ankle, elbow or shoulder — that goes away after a day or two only to be replaced by the same problem in another joint. Short-lived skin rashes may occur, but are not common. Even if the heart is affected, it is usually not severe enough to cause symptoms, although occasionally the child may be short of breath.

Treatments

Although having rheumatic fever leaves a child more susceptible to heart damage, it does not always permanently damage the heart. However, when the inflammation caused by rheumatic fever leaves one or more of the heart valves scarred, the result is rheumatic heart disease. The mitral valve and the aortic valve are usually the ones damaged by the disease. Years later, the mitral valve may become narrowed, a condition known as mitral stenosis.

Treatment of acute rheumatic fever includes antibiotics to treat the strep infection and additional medications to ease the inflammation of the heart and other symptoms. Usually aspirin is given in large doses until the joint inflammation goes away; rarely, steroids are needed. Once the acute illness has gone away, patients need to take penicillin, or an equivalent antibiotic, for many years to prevent recurrences. This is a very important treatment because the risk of heart valve damage increases if rheumatic fever recurs.

Most often the valve leak caused by the disease is mild and does not need treatment. If the leak is severe enough to strain and enlarge the heart, surgery may be needed to eliminate the leak. This surgery may involve repair of the damaged valve. Sometimes the valve is too badly damaged to repair, in which case it must be replaced by an artificial valve.

Water Melon Stomach: Causes & Treatments

Watermelon stomach, which is also known as gastric antral vascular ectasis or GAVE, is where the lining of the stomach bleeds, causing it to look like the characteristic stripes of a watermelon when viewed by endoscopy. Watermelon stomach occurs most commonly in older women (over age 70 years), although it can develop in men and women of any age. Signs and symptoms of watermelon stomach include blood in the stool, haematemesis (vomiting blood) and anaemia. It is a genetics disorder also.

The exact cause of watermelon stomach is not known, however, it is often diagnosed in people with other chronic (long-term) conditions such as cirrhosis (scarring of the liver and poor liver function) and systemic sclerosis.

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Endoscopy CT scan looks like watermelon

Diagnosis

Diagnosis can be challenging as gastric bleeding is more commonly caused by other conditions, such as stomach ulcers and abnormal, enlarged vessels in the throat and stomach (esophageal varices) and some medications that can irritate the stomach lining such as aspirin or NSAIDs. Tests for watermelon stomach include:

  • an endoscopy
  • a biopsy of the stomach lining
  • an endoscopic ultrasound (ultrasound probe on the tip of an endoscope) computed tomography (CT) scan
  • a tagged red blood cell scan may be used to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment

Treatment can be surgery and/or medications to stop or control the bleeding. Watermelon stomach is usually treated with endoscopic laser surgery or argon plasma coagulation. Both of these procedures are performed by endoscopy. Endoscopic laser surgery uses a laser light to treat bleeding blood vessels, while argon plasma coagulation uses argon gas and electrical current to seal irregular or bleeding tissue. In some cases, people may be treated with certain medications that help stop or control the gastrointestinal bleeding. Corticosteriods, tranexamic acid and hormone therapy (with oestrogen and progesterone) have been used to treat watermelon stomach with some success. If the bleeding is severe, blood transfusions may also be necessary at the time of diagnosis to control the bleeding. Additional transfusions may be recommended if gastrointestinal bleeding cannot be stopped or controlled

BLUE BABY: Causes, Symptoms & Treatments

The baby takes on a bluish hue because of poorly oxygenated blood. Normally, blood is pumped from the heart to the lungs, where it receives oxygen. The blood is circulated back through the heart and then throughout the body. When there’s a problem with the heart, lungs, or blood, blood may not be oxygenated properly. This causes the skin to take on a blue color. The lack of oxygenation can occur for several reasons.

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Causes:

Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)

While a rare congenital heart defect, TOF is a primary cause of blue baby syndrome. It’s actually a combination of four heart defects that can reduce blood flow to the lungs and allow oxygen-poor blood to flow out into the body.

Methemoglobinemia

This condition stems from nitrate poisoning. It is can happen in babies who are fed infant formula mixed with well water or homemade baby food made with nitrate-rich foods, like spinach or beets.

Down’s Syndrome

Type-2 diabetic

n addition to the bluish color of the skin, other symptoms of blue baby syndrome include:

  • irritability
  • lethargy
  • feeding issues
  • inability to gain weight
  • developmental issues
  • rapid heartbeat or breathing
  • clubbed (or rounded) fingers and toes the blood

  Treatment:

Treatment depends on the cause of the blue baby syndrome. If the condition is produced by a congenital heart defect, your baby will most likely need surgery at some point. Medication may be recommended as well. These recommendations are based on the severity of the defect. Babies with methemoglobinemia can reverse the condition by taking a drug called methylene blue, which can provide oxygen to the blood. This drug needs a prescription and is usually delivered via a needle inserted into a vein.

Prevention

  • Don’t use well water.
  • Limit nitrate-rich foods.
  • Avoid illegal drugs, smoking, alcohol, and some medications during pregnancy.

 

Vitrectomy surgery for Diabetic retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy  is a diabetes complication that affects eyes. It’s caused by damage to the blood vessels of the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (retina).

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Symptoms

You might not have symptoms in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy. As the condition progresses, diabetic retinopathy symptoms may include:

  • Spots or dark strings floating in your vision (floaters)
  • Blurred vision
  • Fluctuating vision
  • Impaired color vision
  • Dark or empty areas in your vision
  • Vision loss

Causes

Over time, too much sugar in your blood can lead to the blockage of the tiny blood vessels that nourish the retina, cutting off its blood supply. As a result, the eye attempts to grow new blood vessels. But these new blood vessels don’t develop properly and can leak easily.

Treatment:

Vitrectomy with endolaser for one day stay in Hospital for surgery and 1 month should stay outside for OPD visit regularly.

 

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus(SLE): Causes & Symptoms

The immune system normally fights off dangerous infections and bacteria to keep the body healthy. An autoimmune disease occurs when the immune system attacks the body because it confuses it for something foreign. There are many autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).The term lupus has been used to identify a number of immune diseases that have similar clinical presentations and laboratory features, but SLE is the most common type of lupus. People are often referring to SLE when they say lupus.

Symptoms:

Symptoms can vary and can change over time. Common symptoms include:

  • severe fatigue
  • joint pain
  • joint swelling
  • headaches
  • a rash on the cheeks and nose, which is called a “butterfly rash”
  • hair loss
  • anemia
  • blood-clotting problems
  • fingers turning white or blue and tingling when cold

Other symptoms depend on the part of the body the disease is attacking, such as the digestive tract, the heart, or the skin.Lupus symptoms are also symptoms of many other diseases, which makes diagnosis tricky.

Image result for systemic lupus erythematosusImage result for systemic lupus erythematosus

 

Causes:

Genetics

Environment

Environmental triggers can include:

  • ultraviolet rays
  • certain medications
  • viruses
  • physical or emotional stress
  • trauma

Sex and hormones

SLE affects women more than men. Women also may experience more severe symptoms during pregnancy and with their menstrual periods.

 Treatment for SLE:

No cure for SLE exists. The goal of treatment is to ease symptoms. Treatment can vary depending on how severe your symptoms are and which parts of your body SLE affects. The treatments may include:

  • anti-inflammatory medications for joint pain and stiffness, such as these options available online
  • steroid creams for rashes
  • corticosteroids to minimize the immune response
  • antimalarial drugs for skin and joint problems
  • disease modifying drugs or targeted immune system agents for more severe cases

Benign Endocervical Polyps: Causes, Symptoms & Treatments

Cervical polyps are growths on the cervical canal, the passage that connects the uterus to the vagina.

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Symptoms:

About two out of three women who have cervical polyps don’t have symptoms. Doctors normally find these growths during a Pap test or other procedure. If you do have symptoms, they may include:

  • Periods that are heavier than usual
  • Bleeding after sex
  • Bleeding after menopause
  • Bleeding between periods
  • Vaginal discharge, which may stink due to infection

Causes:

  • Cervical infections
  • Chronic inflammation
  • An abnormal response to the hormone estrogen
  • Clogged blood vessels near the cervix

Treatment:

If your doctor finds cervical polyps during a routine pelvic exam and Pap smear, she’ll probably take a sample of the tissue (biopsy) and send it to the lab to make sure it’s not cancer..She’ll probably remove them at that time. She’ll use a tool called a polyp forceps to gently twist the growth off your cervix.You might bleed and cramp just a little during or after the procedure. Most cervical polyps are benign, cause no problems, and don’t come back once they’re removed.

Medication:

An over-the-counter pain medication like Ovral- L or acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Motrin or Advil) can relieve the pain. These are stops the bleeding also.

 

Pituitary Adenoma: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

The pituitary gland is in the skull, below the brain and above the nasal passages. A large tumour can press upon and damage the brain and nerves. Vision changes or headaches are symptoms. In some cases, hormones can also be affected, interfering with menstrual cycles and causing sexual dysfunction. Treatments include surgery and medication to block excess hormone production or shrink the tumour. In some cases, radiation may also be used.
Depending on which hormones are affected, symptoms might include:
  • Nausea.
  • Weakness.
  • Unexplained weight loss or weight gain.
  • Loss of body hair.
  • Feeling cold.
  • Feeling tired or weak.
  • Menstrual changes or loss of menstrual periods in women.
  • Erectile dysfunction (trouble with erections) in me
Common symptoms: headache, inappropriate breast milk production, irregular menstruation, or vision disorder.
Requires a medical diagnosis:Vision changes or headaches are symptoms. In some cases, hormones can also be affected, interfering with menstrual cycles and causing sexual dysfunction.
Treatment depends on severity:
Treatments include surgery and medication to block excess hormone production or shrink the tumour. In some cases, radiation may also be used.
Surgery: Transsphenoidal surgery
Surgery performed through the nose and sinus cavity to remove brain tumours.
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Cochlear Implant : Activation & rehabilitation

A cochlear implant is an electronic device that partially restores hearing. It can be an option for people who have severe hearing loss from inner-ear damage and who receive limited benefit from hearing aids. Unlike hearing aids — which amplify sound — a cochlear implant bypasses damaged portions of the ear to deliver sound signals to the auditory (hearing) nerve. Cochlear implants use a sound processor that fits behind the ear. The processor captures sound signals and transmits them to a receiver implanted under the skin behind the ear. The receiver sends the signals to electrodes implanted in the snail-shaped inner ear (cochlea). The signals stimulate the auditory nerve, which then directs them to the brain. The brain interprets those signals as sounds, though these sounds won’t be just like normal hearing.

It takes time and training to learn to interpret the signals received from a cochlear implant. Within a year of use, most people with cochlear implants make considerable gains in understanding speech.

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During the procedure

The surgeon will make an incision behind the ear, and form a slight depression in the portion of skull bone (mastoid) where the internal device rests.

The surgeon will then create a small hole in the cochlea and thread the electrode array of the internal device through this hole. The incision is stitched closed so that the internal device is under the skin.

After the procedure

You or your child might experience:

  • Pressure or discomfort over the implanted ear or ears
  • Dizziness or nausea

Most people feel well enough to return home the day of surgery or the day afterward. You will need to return to the doctor in about a week to have stitches removed. The cochlear implants won’t be turned on (activated) until two to six weeks after surgery — to give the surgery site time to heal.

Activation

To activate the cochlear implant, an audiologist will:

  • Adjust the sound processor to fit you or your child
  • Check the components of the cochlear implant to make sure they work
  • Determine what sounds you or your child hears
  • Give you information on the proper care and use of the device

Rehabilitation

Rehabilitation involves training the brain to understand sounds heard through the cochlear implant. Speech and everyday environmental noises will sound different from what you remember. The brain needs time to recognize what these sounds mean. This process is ongoing and is best achieved by wearing the speech processor continuously during waking hours

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