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appendicitis 111


It is an inflammation of the appendix, a finger shaped  pouch that projects from your colon on the lower right side of your abdomen . It causes pain in your lower right abdomen . However in most people , pain begins around the navel  and then moves. As inflammation worsens pain typically increases and eventually becomes worse


Signs and symptoms of appendicitis may include :

  • Sudden pain that begins on the right side of the lower abdomen
  • Sudden pain that begins around your navel and often shifts to your lower right abdomen
  • Pain that worsens if you cough , walk or make other jarring movements
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Low grade fever that worsen as the illness progresses
  • Constipation or diarrhea
  • Abdominal bloating
  • Flatulence

Acute appendicitis:

Acute appendicitis is a severe and sudden case of appendicitis. The symptoms tend to develop quickly over the course of one to two days. It requites immediate medical treatment , if left untreated , it may cause your appendix to rupture .This can be a serious and even fatal complication . Acute  appendicitis is more common than chronic appendicitis.

Chronic appendicitis:

Chronic appendicitis is less common than acute. In chronic cases appendicitis , the symptoms may be relatively mild. They may disappear before reappearing again over a period of weeks , months or even years. This type of appendicitis can be challenging to diagnose. Sometimes its not diagnosed until it develops into acute appendicitis


Many things can potentially block your appendix, including

  • a buildup of hardened stool
  • enlarged lymphoid follicles
  • Intestinal worms
  • traumatic injury
  • tumors


Depending on the condition doctor may recommend

  • surgery to remove your appendix
  • needle draining or surgery to drain an abscess
  • antibiotics
  • pain relievers
  • IV fluids
  • liquid diet


The type of surgery used generally is called appendectomy. During this procedure they will remove your appendix . If your appendix has burst , they will  also  clean out your abdominal cavity


Risk factors include

  • Age: most often affects people between the ages of 15-30
  • Sex : common in males than females
  • Family history: People who have family history of appendicitis are at high risk


  • A ruptured appendix
  • A pocket of pus that forms in the abdomen

To get opinion from network our network of hospitals visit or send email to

Prepared by: Dr Sajna Hamza


cataract `111


A cataract is a dense , cloudy area that forms in the lens of the eye. A cataract begins when proteins in the eye form clumps that prevent the lens from sending clear images to the retina. The retina works by converting the light that comes through the lens into signals. It sends the signals to the optic neve which carries them into the brain

Cataract develops slowly and eventually interferes with your vision. Cataracts are common in older people


  • blurry vision
  • trouble seeing at night
  • seeing colors as faded
  • increased sensitivity to glare
  • halos surrounding lights
  • double vision in the affected eye
  • a need for frequent changes in prescription glasses


  • an over production of oxidants which are oxygen molecules that been chemically altered due to normal daily life
  • smoking
  • ultra violet  radiation
  • the long term usage of steroids and other medications
  • certain diseases such ass diabetes
  • trauma
  • radiation therapy


SURGERY: It is recommended when cataracts prevent you from going about your daily activities such as reading  or driving . Its also performed when cataract interfere with the treatments of other eye problems’

One surgical method known as phaco-emulsification involves the use of ultra sound waves to break the lens apart and remove the pieces

Extra capsular surgery involves removing the cloudy part of the lens through a long incision in the cornea .After  surgery  an artificial intra ocular lens is placed where the natural lens was. Cataract surgery   usually an out patient procedure  takes an hour or less to perform. First your doctor will place eye drops in your eye to dilate your pupil . You will receive local anesthesia to numb the area and you may be given a sedative to help you relax

Surgical methods used to remove cataracts include , using ultra sound probe to break up the lens for removal or making an incision in the eye and removing the lens in one piece

After the removal of the cataract the artificial lens is implanted into the empty lens capsule

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sinusitis 2

A condition in which cavities around the nasal passages become inflamed .Sinuses are hollow spaces within the bones between your eyes, behind your cheekbones and in your forehead. They make mucus which keeps the inside of your nose moist. That in turn helps to protect against dust , allergens and pollutants. Healthy sinuses are filled with air , But when they become blocked and filled with fluid , germs can grow and cause an infection


  • Acute sinusitis – usually start with cold like symptoms such as runny , stuffy nose and facial pain . It may start suddenly and last 2-4 weeks
  • Sub acute sinusitis – usually last 4-12 weeks
  • Chronic sinusitis- usually symptoms last 12 weeks or longer
  • Recurrent sinusitis – happens  several times a year


  • Swelling inside the nose like from common cold
  • Blood drainage ducts
  • Structural differences that narrow those ducts
  • Nasal ducts
  • Immune system deficiencies or meditation that suppress the immune system
  • Allergies
  • Pacifiers
  • Drinking water while lying on back


  • Sinus headache
  • Facial tenderness
  • Pressure or pain in sinuses
  • Fever
  • Cloudy discolored nasal or postnasal drainage
  • Feeling of nasal stiffness
  • Sore throat Cough
  • Facial swelling
  • Pus like nasal discharge
  • Reduced sense of smell and taste
  • Tooth ache


  • Nasal irrigation – Rinse and clear the nasal passages with  salt water or a saline solution
  • Rest
  • Steal inhalation


Treatment options depend on how long the condition last. Your doctor may prescribes antibodies if they think you have acute bacterial  sinusitis . In some cases surgery may be necessary to treat the underlying cause of acute sinusitis .Your doctor may perform surgery to

  • remove nasal polyp
  • correct a deviated nasal septum
  • clean and drain your sinuses


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tennis elbow

An irritation of the tissue connecting the forearm muscle to the elbow .Tennis elbow can be caused by respective wrist and arm motions


Tennis elbow usually develops over time. Repetitive motions like gripping a racket during a swing can strain the muscles and put too much stress on the tendons .That constant tugging can eventually cause microscopic tears in the tissue. Tennis elbow might result from

  • Tennis
  • Racquet ball
  • Squash
  • Fencing
  • Weight lifting

It can also affect people with jobs or hobbies that require repetitive arm movements or gripping such as

  • Carpentry
  • Typing
  • Carpentry
  • Raking
  • Knitting


Symptoms include pain and tiredness in the bony knob on the outside of your elbow .This knob is where the injured tendons connect to the bone. The pain may also radiate into the upper or lower arm. Although the damage is in the elbow you are likely to hurt when doing things with  your hands

Tennis elbow may cause the most pain when you

  • Lift something
  • Make a fist or grip an object such as a tennis racket
  • Open a door or shake hands
  • Raise your hand or straighten your wrist
  • Tennis elbow is similar to another condition called golfers elbow which affects  the tendons on the inside of elbow


The good news about treatment is that usually tennis elbow will heal on its own. Types of treatment that help are

  • Icing the elbow to reduce pain and swelling.
  • Using an elbow strap to protect the injured tendon from further strain
  • Taking internal medicines
  • Performing range of motion exercises to reduce stiffness and increase flexibility
  • Getting physical therapy to strengthen and stretch the muscles

To get opinion from our network of hospitals visit or send email to


laproscopic surgery 11


Laparoscopic surgery is a surgical technique in which short, narrow tubes ( trocars)  are inserted into the abdomen through small ( less than one centimeter ) incisions . Through these trochars long narrow instruments to manipulate, cut and see tissue


In patients terms, laparoscopic surgery has the advantages of avoiding large open wounds or incisions and thus of decreasing blood loss , pain and discomfort . Patients have fewer  unwanted effects from analgesia because less analgesia is required .The fine instruments are less apt to cause tissue trauma and blood loss. Also it has better quality of life outcomes than open surgery for cholecystectomy, splenectomy and esophageal surgery. However open hernioplasty has at least as good if not better , health status outcomes than laparoscopic repair


It can take longer to perform than open surgery ( if not performed with right technique) . The  longer time under anesthesia may increase the risk of complication. Sometimes complications do not appear right away but occurs few days to few weeks after surgery


  • Fever or chills
  • Abdominal pain that becomes more intense over time
  • Redness , swelling , bleeding or drainage at the incision sites
  • continuous nausea or vomiting
  • Persistent cough
  • Shortness of breath
  • Inability to urinate
  • Lightheadness


It is usually done as an outpatient procedure. General anesthesia is given as intravenous line in one of your veins. In some cases  local anesthesia is also used. During laparoscopy, the surgeon makes an incision below your belly button and then inserts a small tube called a cannula. The cannula is used to inflate your abdomen with carbon dioxide gas. This gas allows your doctor to see your   abdominal organs more clearly. Once abdomen is inflated , the surgeon inserts the laparoscope through the incision. The camera attached to the laparoscope displays the images on a screen, allowing your organs to be viewed in real time. Generally you get from one to four  incisions  that are each between 1 and 2 centimeters in length. These incisions allow other instruments to be inserted . After the procedure is done , the instruments are removed. Your incisions are  then closed with stitches or surgical staples


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knee 1

Knee replacement surgery also known as knee arthroplasty can help relive pain and restore function  in  severely diseased knee joints. The procedure involves cutting away damaged bone and cartilage from your thigh bone , shin bone and knee cap and replacing it with an artificial joint( prosthesis) made of metal alloys high grade plastics and polymers


Knee replacement surgery is usually   necessary when the knee joint is worn out or damaged so that your mobility is reduced and you are  in pain even while resting . The most common reason for knee replacement surgery is osteoarthritis. Other health conditions that cause knee damage include rheumatoid arthritis


  • Infection
  • Blood clots in the leg
  • Heart attack
  • Stroke
  • Nerve damage


Before the procedure-

  1. Your doctor will explain the procedure to you
  2. Consent form is asked to sign
  3. Physical examination is done
  4. Complete medical history is asked
  5. Notify your doctor if you have a history of bleeding disorder
  6. You will be asked to fast for eight hours before procedure
  7. You may receive a sedative prior to the surgery to help you relax

During the surgery-

Generally knee replacement surgery follows this process

  1. You will be asked to remove clothing and will be given a gown to wear
  2. An intravenous (IV) line may be started in your arm or hand
  3. You will be positioned on the operating table
  4. Urinary catheter may be inserted
  5. Excessive hair at the surgical site may be clipped off
  6. Skin over the  surgical site will be cleaned with an antiseptic solution
  7. The doctor will make an incision in the knee area
  8. The doctor will remove the damaged surfaces of the knee joint and resurface the knee joint with  the prosthesis . The prosthesis is made up of metal and plastic, A cemented prosthesis  attaches  to the bone with a porous surface onto which the bone grows to attach to the prosthesis. The prosthesis is generally comprised of 3 components-the tibial component, the femoral component and the patellar component
  9. The incision will be closed with stitches or surgical staples
  10. A sterile bandage or dressing will be applied

After the procedure-

In the hospital -after the surgery you will be taken to the recovery room for observation . Once your blood pressure , pulse and breathing are stable and you are alert you will be taken to your hospital room. Knee replacement  surgery usually requires as in hospital stay of several days

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Hip-fracture 33

A hip fracture is a break in  the upper portion of the femur ( thigh bone) . Most hip fractures occur in elderly patients whose bones have become weakened by osteoporosis . When a hip fracture occurs in a younger patient it is typically the result of a high energy event such as a fall from a ladder or vehicle collision


  • Inability to get up from a fall or to walk
  • Severe pain in your hip or groin
  • Inability to put weight on your leg on the side of your injured hip
  • Bruising and swelling in and around your hip area
  • Outward turning of your leg on the side of your injured hip


  • Age
  • Osteoporosis
  • Other chronic medical conditions
  • Nutritional problems
  • Physical inactivity


  • Blood clots in your legs or lungs
  • Bedsore
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Pneumonia
  • Further loss of muscle mass, increasing your risk of falls and injuries
  • Death


Most hip fractures occurs in one of the two locations on the long bone that extends from your pelvis to your knee

  • The Femoral neck- This area is situated in the upper portion of your femur, just below the ball part( femoral head ) of the ball and socket joint
  • The intertrochanteric region- This region is a little farther down from the hip joint , in the portion of your upper femur that juts outside

Treatment of hip fracture usually involves a combination of surgery , rehabilitation and medication

Surgery- The type of surgery you have generally depends on the the where and how  severe the fracture is , whether the broken bones aren’t properly aligned and your age and underlying health conditions. The options include :

  • Internal repair using screws
  • Total Hip replacement
  • Partial hip  replacement
  • Your doctor might suggest total or partial hip replacement if the blood supply to the ball part of the hip joint was damaged during the fracture

Rehabilitation- Physical therapy will initially focus on  range of motion and strengthening exercises.

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A bone fracture is a medical condition where the continuity of the bone is broken. A significant percentage of bone fractures occurs because of high force impact or stress. Also it may be due to cancers , osteogenesis imperfecta, osteoporosis etc…


  • Avulsion fracture- a muscle or ligament pulls on the bone, fracturing it
  • Comminuted fracture- the bone is shattered into many pieces
  • Compression (crush) fracture- generally occurs in the spongy bone in the spine
  • Fracture dislocation – a joint becomes dislocated and one of the bones of joint has a fracture
  • Greenstick fracture- the bone partly fractures on one side, but does not break completely because the rest of the bone can bend
  • Hairline fracture- a partial fracture of the bone .Sometimes this type of fracture is harder to detect with routine x-ray
  • Impacted fracture – when  the bone is fractured , one fragment of bone goes into another
  • Intra articular fracture- where break is along the length of the bone
  • Oblique fracture- a fracture that is diagonal to a bones long axis
  • Pathological fracture- when an underlying disease or condition has already weakened the bone, resulting in a fracture
  • Spiral fracture- a fracture where at least one part of the bone has been twisted
  • Tortus fracture- bone deforms but does not crack
  • Transverse fracture- a straight break right across a bone


The signs and symptoms of a fracture vary according to which bone is affected , the patients age and general health as well as the severity of injury. Some of the following are

  • Pain
  • Swelling
  • Bruising
  • Discolored skin around the affected area
  • Angulation- affected area may be bent at an unusual angle
  • Patient is unable to put weight on the injured area
  • Patient cannot move the affected area


Bone healing is a natural process which in most cases well occur automatically. For the natural healing process to begin , the ends of the broken bone need to be lined up this is known as reducing the fracture. The patient is usually asleep under a general anesthesia when fracture reduction is done. Fracture reduction may be done by manipulation closed reduction or surgery.

Immobilization-as soon as the bones are aligned they must stay aligned while they heal

This may include

  • Plaster casts or plastic functional braces- these hold the bone in position until it has healed
  • Metal plates and screw – current procedures may use minimally invasive techniques
  • Intra medullary nails- internal metal rods are placed down the center of long bone
  • External fixators- these may be made of metal or carbon fiber , they have steel pins that go into the bone directly through the skin
  • Healing – if a broken bone has been aligned properly and kept immobile , the healing process is usually straight forward
  • Physical therapy- after the bone has healed , it may be necessary to restore muscle strength as well as mobility to the affected area


  • Heals in the wrong position
  • Disruption of bone growth
  • Persistent bone or bone marrow infection
  • Avascular necrosis or bone death

To get opinion from our network of hospitals visit or send email to

Prepared by Dr Sajna Hamza






Pneumonia is an infection in one or both lungs, Bacteria , viruses and fungi cause it. The infection causes inflammation in the air sacs in your lungs, which are called alveoli. The alveoli fill with fluid or pus making it difficult to breath


The signs and symptoms vary from mild to severe , depending on factors such as the type of germ causing the infection and your age and overall health. Mild signs and symptoms often are similar to those of a cold or flu but they last longer

Signs and symptoms of Pneumonia may include

  • Chest pain when you breath and cough
  • Confusion or changes in mental awareness
  • Cough may produce phlegm
  • Fatigue
  • Fever  , sweating and shaking chills
  • Lower than normal body temperature
  • Nausea , vomiting, or diarrhea
  • Shortness of breath


The most common are bacteria and viruses in the air we breath. Your body usually prevents these germs from infecting your lungs . But sometimes these germs can over power your immune system , even if your health id generally good. Pneumonia is classified  according to the types of germs that cause it and where you get the infection

  • COMMUNITY ACQUIRED PHEUMONIA- It is the most common type of pneumonia .It occurs outside of hospitals or other health care facilities. It may be caused by  a) Bacteria b)Fungi c) Viruses
  • HOSPITAL ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA- From the people catch pneumonia during a hospital stay for another illness.  Hospital acquired pneumonia can be serious because the bacteria causing it may be more resistant to antibiotics and because the people who get it are already sick
  • HEALTH CARE ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA- It is a bacterial infection that occurs in people who live in long term care facilities or who receive care in out patient clinics , including kidney dialysis centers
  • ASPIRATION PHEUNOMIA- It occurs when you inhale food , drink , vomit or saliva into your lungs . Aspiration is most likely if something disturbs your normal gag reflex such as a brain injury or swallowing problem or excessive use of alcohol or drugs


  • Children who are 2 years old or younger
  • People who are age 65 or older
  • Being hospitalized
  • Chronic disease
  • Smoking
  • Weakened or suppressed immune system


  • Bacteria in the blood stream
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Fluid accumulation around the lungs
  • Lung abscess


Treatment for pneumonia involves curing the infection and preventing complications. Specific treatments depend on the type and severity of your pneumonia , your age and your overall health. The options include

  • Antibiotics
  • Cough medicine
  • Fever reducers
  • Pain relievers


  • You are older than 65
  • You are confused about time , people or places
  • Your kidney function has declined
  • Your systolic blood pressure is below 90 mm Hg or your diastolic blood pressure is 60 mm Hg below
  • Breathing is rapid
  • You need breathing assistance
  • Your heart rate below 50 or abv 100

To get opinion from our network of hospitals visit or send email to

Prepared by: Dr Sajna Hamza




It is a condition in which an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) occurs within the brain .This causes increased pressure inside the skull



  • Rapid head growth
  • vomiting
  • sleepiness
  • seizures
  • Downward pointing of eyes


  • Headache
  • Double vision
  • Poor balance
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Personality changes
  • Mental impairment
  • Sleepiness


  • Too much CSF is produced
  • One of the ventricles in brain is blocked or narrowed, stopping or restricting the flow of CSF so that it cannot leave the brain
  • CSF cannot filter into the blood stream

Congenital hydrocephalus

  • CMV
  • German measles
  • Mumps
  • Syphilis
  • Taxoplasmosis

Acquired hydrocephalus

  • Brain hemorrhage
  • Brain lesions
  • Brain tumors
  • Meningitis
  • Stroke


  1. Congenital Hydrocephalus: It is one of the most common developmental disabilities , more common than Down’s Syndrome or deafness. It may be caused by an infection in the mother during pregnancy such as rubella, or mumps or a birth defect such as spina bifida
  2. Acquired Hydrocephalus: This develops after birth, usually after a stroke , brain tumor , meningitis etc
  3. Communicating Hydrocephalus: This type occurs when the CSF becomes blocked after leaving the ventricles. It is called communicating because CSF can still flow between the brain ventricles
  4. Non communicating: Also called Obstructive hydrocephalus occurs when the thin connections between the ventricles become blocked


  • Premature birth infants born preterm have a higher risk of intraventricular hemorrhage or bleeding within the ventricles of the brain which may result in hydrocephalus
  • Problems during pregnancy
  • Problems with fetal development, cord or brain
  • Infections of the nervous system
  • Bleeding in the brain
  • Severe head injury


One of two surgical treatments may be used to treat hydrocephalus


The most common treatment of hydrocephalus is the surgical insertion of a drainage system , called shunt. It consists of a long flexible tube with a valve that keeps fluid from the brain flowing in the right direction and at the proper rate. One of the tubing is usually placed in one of the brains ventricles. The tubing is then tunneled under the skin to another part of the body where the excess CSF can more easily absorbed


It is a surgical procedure , in which your surgeon uses a small video camera to have direct vision inside the brain. Your surgeon makes a hole in the bottom of the one of the ventricles  or between the ventricles to enable CSF to flow out of the brain

To get opinion from our network of hospitals visit or send email to

Prepared by :Dr Sajna Hamza