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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive, irreversible inflammatory disease in your lungs that makes it hard to breathe. Common symptoms include a chronic cough, wheezing, production of phlegm, shortness of breath, and a feeling of tightness in your chest, though these symptoms may not be noticeable until you’re in the later stages of the disease. COPD is not curable, but it’s a preventable and treatable illness.

COPD is characterized by the limitation of airflow that is not fully reversible. Airflow limitation in COPD is progressive. It’s associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of your lungs to noxious stimuli, like cigarette smoke, air pollution, or harsh chemicals.

Some causes of COPD include exposure to cigarette smoking, whether you smoke yourself or you’ve been exposed to secondhand smoke; occupational exposure to chemicals; indoor and outdoor air pollution; and, far less often, a genetic disorder called alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. People with asthma sometimes develop COPD as well.

COPD is not a death sentence, with proper treatment, it can be controlled. That said, there are factors that influence COPD life expectancy, especially your body mass index, the degree of airway obstruction, dyspnea levels, and your exercise tolerance.The best treatment for COPD if you’re a smoker is to quit as soon as possible. While this won’t reverse the damage you already have, it can help slow the progression of your COPD.

If you have risk factors for COPD or think you may have it, see your doctor as soon as possible. The earlier you begin treatment, the better your prognosis will likely be. There are things you can do to slow some of the progressive symptoms of COPD, too. The biggest and most effective is to quit smoking. Proper nutrition and daily exercise are also key to living well. With treatment and management of your symptoms, you can live the best life possible.

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ACL Reconstruction

Image result for ACL reconstruction may be used for these knee problems:

ACL reconstruction is surgery to reconstruct the ligament in the center of your knee. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) connects your shin bone to your thigh bone. A tear of this ligament can cause your knee to give way during physical activity. Most people have general anesthesia right before surgery. The tissue to replace your damaged ACL will come from your own body or from a donor. A donor is a person who has died and chose to give all or part of his or her body to help others.

The procedure is usually performed with the help of knee arthroscopy. With arthroscopy, a tiny camera is inserted into the knee through a small surgical cut. The camera is connected to a video monitor in the operating room. Your surgeon will use the camera to check the ligaments and other tissues of your knee.

If you do not have your ACL reconstructed, your knee may continue to be unstable. This increases the chance you may have a meniscus tear. ACL reconstruction may be used for these knee problems:

  • Knee that  feels unstable during daily activities
  • Knee pain
  • Inability to return to sports or other activities
  • When other ligaments are also injured
  • When your meniscus is torn

The recovery process for the ACL is usually broken down into different phases of rehabilitation. Each phase has its own objectives, however is intertwined with other phases since the goals are as progressive as the recovery itself. The rehabilitation process is at the pace of the patient. Timelines are sometimes given to help give an idea of where one can be during rehabilitation.

Vesicoureteral reflux

Image result for vesicoureteral reflux if untreated

Vesicoureteral reflux is the abnormal flow of urine from your bladder back up the tubes that connect your kidneys to your bladder. Normally, urine flows only down from your kidneys to your bladder. Vesicoureteral reflux is usually diagnosed in infants and children. The disorder increases the risk of urinary tract infections, which, if left untreated, can lead to kidney damage.

Risk factors :

  • Bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD). Children with BBD hold their urine and stool and experience recurrent urinary tract infections, which can contribute to vesicoureteral reflux.
  • Race. White children appear to have a higher risk of vesicoureteral reflux.
  • Sex. Generally, girls have about double the risk of having this condition as boys do. The exception is for vesicoureteral reflux that’s present at birth, which is more common in boys.
  • Age. Infants and children up to age 2 are more likely to have vesicoureteral reflux than older children are.
  • Family history. Primary vesicoureteral reflux tends to run in families. Children whose parents had the condition are at higher risk of developing it.

Kidney damage is the primary concern with vesicoureteral reflux. The more severe the reflux, the more serious the complications are likely to be.

Complications :

  • Kidney scarring. 
  • High blood pressure
  • Kidney failure

Treatment depends on the severity of the condition. In mild cases, no treatment is necessary. Moderate to severe cases may be treated with antibiotic medicines to prevent infection. In cases where kids have infections and fevers along with the VUR, surgery may be needed.

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Diabetic neuropathy

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Diabetic neuropathy is a serious and common complication of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It’s a type of nerve damage caused by uncontrolled high blood sugar levels. You may not initially have any symptoms. The condition usually develops slowly, sometimes over the course of several decades.

Types of diabetic neuropathy include the following:

  • Peripheral neuropathy
  • Autonomic neuropathy
  • Focal neuropathies
  • Proximal neuropathy

If you have diabetes, your chance of developing nerve damage caused by diabetes increases the older you get and the longer you have diabetes. Managing your diabetes is an important part of preventing health problems such as diabetic neuropathy.

Your symptoms depend on which type of diabetic neuropathy you have. In peripheral neuropathy, some people may have a loss of sensation in their feet, while others may have burning or shooting pain in their lower legs. Most nerve damage develops over many years, and some people may not notice symptoms of mild nerve damage for a long time. In some people, severe pain begins suddenly.

Foot care is very important for all people with diabetes, and it’s even more important if you have peripheral neuropathy. Check your feet for problems every day, and take good care of your feet. See your doctor for a neurological exam and a foot exam at least once a year and more often if you have foot problems.

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Bipolar disorder

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Bipolar disorder is a medical condition that involves rapid mood swings between periods of good moods and those of irritability and depression. The condition is experienced equally by both men and women and generally manifests itself for the first time when the individual is between the ages of 15 and 25.


  • feeling overly happy or “high” for long periods of time
  • having a decreased need for sleep
  • talking very fast, often with racing thoughts
  • feeling extremely restless or impulsive
  • becoming easily distracted
  • having overconfidence in your abilities
  • engaging in risky behavior, such as having impulsive sex, gambling with life savings, or going on big spending sprees


Diagnosing bipolar disorder requires extensive testing. A physician testing for the disorder will ask about the patient’s family history, looking for anyone else in the family who has the disorder. The physician will also ask about any mood swings experienced recently, and take a history of the mood swings including when they began. After medical questioning, the doctor will provide a thorough physical exam to determine if there is any other illness that may be causing the symptoms of the disorder.


Treatment of bipolar disorder is aimed at stabilizing the patient’s mood as much as possible. With treatment, that the patient may avoid hospital stays, have a lowered desire to self-injure and function better in all of the phases of the condition. During treatment, a physician will try to determine the triggers of the mood swings and provide the patient with exercises to complete when these triggering events occur. These exercises may help prevent the moods or lower their severity. Those patients experiencing severe symptoms may require hospitalization while the mood is stabilized. This may be necessary for either the manic or depressive stages of the disorder.

Those on medication who experience positive results often stop taking the medication, mistaking it for a cure rather than an ongoing stabilizing treatment. Patients may also stop taking medication if they miss the feelings of mania. If the medication is stopped, the symptoms of the disorder often return. Stopping medication may also lead to an even higher chance of drug or alcohol abuse, an increase in suicidal thoughts and extreme judgment issues.

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A migraine is a type of headache. It may occur with symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, or sensitivity to light and sound. In many people, a throbbing pain is felt only on one side of the head.A migraine headache is caused by abnormal brain activity. This activity can be triggered by many things. But the exact chain of events remains unclear. Most medical experts believe the attack begins in the brain and involves nerve pathways and chemicals. The changes affect blood flow in the brain and surrounding tissues.

Migraine headaches tend to first appear between the ages of 10 and 45. Sometimes, they begin earlier or later. Migraines may run in families. Migraines occur more often in women than men. Some women, but not all, have fewer migraines when they are pregnant.


There are two main types of migraines:

  • Migraine with aura 
  • Migraine without aura

When you have a long-term migraine, it’s about much more than a headache. You may feel sick to your stomach and find it hard to handle light, sounds, and smells. For some folks, though, it doesn’t stop there. They also get something called an aura. Most often, an aura causes you to see strange things, like colored spots or flashing lights. It can be pretty scary, especially the first time it happens. There is no specific test to prove that your headache is actually a migraine. In most cases, no special tests are needed. Your provider may order a brain CT or MRI scan if you have never had one before. The test may also be ordered if you have unusual symptoms with your migraine, including weakness, memory problems, or loss of alertness. An EEG may be needed to rule out seizures. 


There is no specific cure for migraine headaches. The goal is to treat your migraine symptoms right away, and to prevent symptoms by avoiding or changing your triggers. If you have frequent migraines, your provider may prescribe medicine to reduce the number of attacks. You need to take the medicine every day for it to be effective. 



Peripheral vascular disease (PAD)

Image result for Peripheral vascular disease

Peripheral vascular disease is a blood circulation disorder that causes the blood vessels outside of your heart and brain to narrow, block, or spasm. This can happen in your arteries or veins. PVD typically causes pain and fatigue, often in your legs, and especially during exercise. The pain usually improves with rest.

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) develops only in the arteries, which carry oxygen-rich blood away from the heart.


The two main types of PVD are functional and organic PVD. Functional PVD means there’s no physical damage to your blood vessels’ structure. Instead, your vessels widen and narrow in response other factors like brain signals and temperature changes. The narrowing causes blood flow to decrease. The most common causes of functional PVD are emotional stress, cold temperatures, operating vibrating machinery or tools etc

Organic PVD involves changes in blood vessel structure like inflammation, plaques, and tissue damage. The primary causes of organic PVD are, smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol etc.Additional causes of organic PVD include extreme injuries, muscles or ligaments with abnormal structures, blood vessel inflammation, and infection.

 Risk factors

  • over age 50
  • overweight
  •  abnormal cholesterol
  •  history of cerebrovascular disease or stroke
  • have heart disease
  • have diabetes
  • have a family history of high cholesterol, high blood pressure, or PVD
  • have high blood pressure
  • have kidney disease


  • tissue death, which can lead to limb amputation
  • impotence
  • pale skin
  • pain at rest and with movement
  • severe pain that restricts mobility
  • wounds that don’t heal
  • life-threatening infections of the bones and blood stream

Early diagnosis is the first step to successful treatment and it can prevent life-threatening complications.


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Colon Cancer/Rectal Cancer

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The rectum is part of the digestive tract. Cancer that originates in the colon or rectum may be called rectal cancer, colon cancer, or colorectal cancer. Because treatment and progression of colon cancer and rectal cancer may be different, they are often reported separately.

Tests used to help detect cancer at an early stage and help improve the outcome are called screening tests. Colorectal cancer screening tests include digital rectal examination (DRE), proctoscopy, colonoscopy, and stool occult blood testing. Beginning at the age of 50, a colonoscopy and annual DRE and occult blood testing should be performed. Younger patients who should undergo colorectal cancer screening include those under the age of 50 with a family history of colon cancer, and patients with a history of rectal or gynecologic cancer or ulcerative colitis.

In general, rectal and rectosigmoid cancer  are more likely than other colon cancers to produce symptoms prior to diagnosis. These cancers often cause bleeding that can be observed. Other signs and symptoms include a change in bowel activity, unexplained constipation or a reduction in stool caliber, urgency, and inadequate emptying of the bowels. With advanced tumors, urinary symptoms or buttock pain may occur. These symptoms usually lead to an evaluation of the colorectal area.

Digital rectal examination  may be used as an initial screening examination; however, tumors located more than 7 centimeters from the anal verge may be missed during this examination. Additional studies include barium enema, usually with flexible sigmoidoscopy and/or colonoscopy used as a complementary procedure.If a tumor is discovered by any of the above procedures, a biopsy should be performed.

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Uterine choriocarcinoma

This rare type of tumor that most often affects pregnant women is called a gestational choriocarcinoma. The cancer usually starts in your uterus but can spread to other parts of the body. It can happen after a miscarriage, abortion, ectopic pregnancy, or molar pregnancy when an egg is fertilized, but the placenta develops into a mass of cysts instead of a fetus.


If the choriocarcinoma is in your vagina, it could cause bleeding.

If it has spread to other parts of your body like your lungs or brain, you may notice:

  • Cough
  • Trouble breathing
  • Chest pain
  • Headache
  • Dizziness  


 If your tumor is low-risk, meaning it’s small and hasn’t spread, chemotherapy is the main treatment. You’ll get it until there are no signs of cancer in your body based on hCG levels.

If your cancer is high-risk, you may need surgery and chemo, or surgery, chemo, and radiation.

Nearly all women diagnosed with the disease are cured with treatment, though it’s less likely if the disease has spread to your liver or your liver and your brain. But each case is different, and your doctor will discuss the option that’s right for you.


to know more details:- send in your queries to or WhatsApp your latest medical reports to +91-9880149003.

Soft Tissue Sarcomas