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Carcinoid tumors: Treatments


Carcinoid tumors generally are classified based on the location in the primitive gut (ie, foregut, midgut, hindgut) that gives rise to the tumor. Foregut carcinoid tumors are divided into sporadic primary tumors and tumors secondary to achlorhydria. The term sporadic primary foregut tumor encompasses carcinoids of the bronchus, stomach, proximal duodenum, and pancreas. Midgut tumors are derived from the second portion of the duodenum, the jejunum, the ileum, and the right colon. These account for 60-80% of all carcinoid tumors (especially those of the appendix and distal ileum) in adults and are also seen in children
Diagnosis and Treatment:

A number of imaging modalities have been used to detect carcinoid tumors. These modalities include plain radiography, upper- and lower-GI radiography with the use of oral contrast agents, CT, MRI, angiography, positron emission tomography (PET), scintigraphy with metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and octreotide (Monsieurs, 2001; Shi, 1998), radionuclide imaging with somatostatin analogs attached to the radioactive tracer, and technetium-99m bone scanning. Depending on the location of the tumor and metastasis, a combination of these may be used.
GI series, CT, and MRI may be helpful in some situations.
For the diagnosis of chest tumors, CT combined with scintigraphy with octreotide is preferred.
In the large bowel, the disease is often detected with colonoscopy and does not provide an imaging challenge. Imaging diagnosis of small-bowel carcinoids is relatively difficult. Small tumors in this location are difficult to detect on upper-GI series and CT scans, and other techniques are required.
Mesenteric invasion and liver metastasis are often detected on CT scans. MRI can also be helpful in the diagnosis of hepatic disease but is less sensitive than CT in detection of extrahepatic lesions.
With advances in imaging studies, angiography is rarely used and is reserved for equivocal situations.
PET scanning can be helpful and is increasingly used for diagnosis and follow-up of the tumors.
Scintigraphy with MIBG and octreotide scanning have been used to successfully detect carcinoid tumors (Kaltsas, 2001). Octreotide scanning appears to be more sensitive than MIBG imaging.
Radionuclide imaging with somatostatin analogs attached to radioactive tracer can be used to advantage for diagnosis of carcinoid tumors.
Radiotracers currently used include indium-111 diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (111 In-DTPA) and yttrium. Most neuroendocrine tumors have receptors for somatostatins. Five somatostatin receptor subtypes, designated SSTR-1 to SSTR-5, are identified. Binding affinity of somatostatin analogs to these subtypes may vary, with highest affinity for SSTR-2, medium affinity for SSTR-2 and SSTR-5, and lowest affinity for SSTR-1 and SSTR-4. Carcinoid tumors often express SSTR-1 to SSTR-3 and, infrequently, SSTR-2. Nevertheless, for tumors that measure less than 1 cm in diameter, the sensitivity of111 In-DTPA octreotide imaging reaches 80-90%.
This technique can be used to identify primary and metastatic disease and is approved for radionuclide scanning of carcinoid tumors. An advantage is that, if the result is positive, this technique can be used as a treatment modality.
In a study of 40 patients, somatostatin-receptor scintigraphy (SRS) helped in detecting localized tumors in 78% of patients versus 82% with CT scanning. However, SRS helped in identifying primary tumors in 2 patients missed on CT scanning. In 16% of patients, SRS depicted lesions not found with other modalities. No false-positive results were observed.
Overall, SRS appears to be the imaging method of choice for localizing and evaluating the extent of carcinoid tumor.
Bone metastasis is not uncommon in carcinoid tumors. In a study of 12 patients, 11 of whom had liver metastasis, 8 had bone involvement, as detected on SRS.
Technetium-99m bone scanning can aid in the detection of metastases.

Endoscopy, including bronchoscopy, esophagogastroscopy, gastroscopy, and colonoscopy, can be used for biopsy and diagnosis.

Medical Care
If metastases occur and surgical excision is not suitable, consider treatment with currently recommended chemotherapy.

Chemotherapeutic agents currently used in clinical trials to palliate metastatic carcinoid disease include the following:
Alkylating agents
Actinomycin D
Interferon alfa
Somatostatin analogs with a radioactive load
A combination of the agents listed above is typically used.
In one study, 8 adults with carcinoid tumor metastatic to liver were treated with intra-arterial 5-fluorouracil and embolization of hepatic tumors with bovine collagen fiber admixed with iohexol, cisplatin, mitomycin C, and doxorubicin. This treatment resulted in symptomatic relief and tumor regression in 4 patients and stabilized the disease in the rest of the patients.
Octreotide, a somatostatin analog, is highly effective in reducing symptoms; however, in the pediatric age group, stunted linear growth is of concern.

Octreotide reduces the amount of the growth factor produced and, thus, theoretically impairs growth.
Intermittent and continuous infusions of octreotide have been reported, with superior results obtained with the latter.
Such treatment can result in near-normalization of the plasma insulinlike growth factor I and partial suppression of plasma growth hormone–releasing hormone (GHRH) (Lefebvre, 1995).
The availability of a long-acting somatostatin analog that can be given once a month has eliminated the need for injections 2-3 times per day, with equal efficacy (Rubin, 1999).
In metastatic carcinoid tumors, long-term use of octreotide is reported. However, receptor alteration induced during the use of this agent requires consecutive drug dosage increase to control the symptoms (Corleto, 2000).
At present, no formal, well-designed study has been performed to systematically measure the effects of this modality of therapy. Although experience is limited, adverse effects in children have been similar to those in adults. Adverse effects include gallstones and steatorrhea, which may sometimes require pancreatic enzyme replacement. Local irritation at the injection site is a common complaint. These adverse effects must be weighted against the potential benefits.

In situ targeted therapy with somatostatin analogs (eg, octreotide attached to a radioactive load using yttrium-90 or111 Indium-labeling agents) provides promise for patients with unresectable tumors. This therapy is currently used on an experimental basis in adults and children.

Surgical Care:
The treatment of choice is surgical excision, if feasible. The surgical technique may vary according to the type or location of the tumor.

In most appendiceal tumors, simple appendectomy is sufficient for treatment. In intestinal carcinoids, block resection of the tumor with adjacent lymph nodes must be attempted. In the bronchial location, aggressive surgical resection, and not bronchoscopic removal, is recommended (Fink, 2001; Fauroux, 2005).
In localized tumors, surgical resection can result in cure, with 70-90% survival rate.
When total resection is not possible, debulking may provide symptomatic relief.
For hepatic tumors, surgical ligation of the hepatic artery can potentially deprive blood supply to the tumor cells and cause necrosis while preserving most of the normal live cells. However, new blood vessels develop over time and restore circulation.
Intra-arterial infusion of chemotherapeutic agents with chemoembolization of the hepatic artery may also provide effective, albeit short term, relief of symptoms due to hepatic metastasis in cases of carcinoid tumors.
If hepatic metastasis is present but resectable, surgical resection is preferred
Article by
HCG Cancer centre

Hodgkin Lymphoma: Treatments

Treatment and Diagnosis:

Types of Hodgkin Lymphoma:

If you have swollen lymph nodes or another symptom that suggests Hodgkin lymphoma, your doctor will try to find out what’s causing the problem. Your doctor may ask about your personal and family medical history.

You may have some of the following exams and tests:

Physical exam: Your doctor checks for swollen lymph nodes in your neck, underarms, and groin. Your doctor also checks for a swollen spleen or liver.
Blood tests: The lab does a complete blood count to check the number of white blood cells and other cells and substances.
Chest x-rays: X-ray pictures may show swollen lymph nodes or other signs of disease in your chest.
Biopsy:A biopsy is the only sure way to diagnose Hodgkin lymphoma. Your doctor may remove an entire lymph node (excisional biopsy) or only part of a lymph node (incisional biopsy). A thin needle (fine needle aspiration) usually cannot remove a large enough sample for the pathologist to diagnose Hodgkin lymphoma. Removing an entire lymph node is best.

The pathologist uses a microscope to check the tissue for Hodgkin lymphoma cells. A person with Hodgkin lymphoma usually has large, abnormal cells known as Reed-Sternberg cells. They are not found in people with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. See the photo of a Reed-Sternberg cell.

You may want to ask your doctor these questions before having a biopsy:

How will the biopsy be done?
Will I have to stay in the hospital?
Will I have to do anything to prepare for it?
How long will it take? Will I be awake? Will it hurt?
Are there any risks? What are the chances of swelling, infection, or bleeding after the procedure?
How long will it take me to recover?
How soon will I know the results? Who will explain them to me?
If I do have cancer, who will talk to me about next steps? When?

Types of Hodgkin Lymphoma

When Hodgkin lymphoma is found, the pathologist reports the type. There are two major types of Hodgkin lymphoma:

Classical Hodgkin lymphoma: Most people with Hodgkin lymphoma have the classical type. The Reed-Sternberg cell looks like the photo.
Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: This is a rare type of Hodgkin lymphoma. The abnormal cell is called a popcorn cell. It may be treated differently from the classical type.


Your doctor needs to know the extent (stage) of Hodgkin lymphoma to plan the best treatment. Staging is a careful attempt to find out what parts of the body are affected by the disease.

Hodgkin lymphoma tends to spread from one group of lymph nodes to the next group. For example, Hodgkin lymphoma that starts in the lymph nodes in the neck may spread first to the lymph nodes above the collarbones, and then to the lymph nodes under the arms and within the chest.

In time, the Hodgkin lymphoma cells can invade blood vessels and spread to almost any other part of the body. For example, it can spread to the liver, lungs, bone, and bone marrow.

Staging may involve one or more of the following tests:

CT scan: An x-ray machine linked to a computer takes a series of detailed pictures of your chest, abdomen, and pelvis. You may receive an injection of contrast material. Also, you may be asked to drink another type of contrast material. The contrast material makes it easier for the doctor to see swollen lymph nodes and other abnormal areas on the x-ray.
MRI: A powerful magnet linked to a computer is used to make detailed pictures of your bones, brain, or other tissues. Your doctor can view these pictures on a monitor and can print them on film.
PET scan: You receive an injection of a small amount of radioactive sugar. A machine makes computerized pictures of the sugar being used by cells in your body. Lymphoma cells use sugar faster than normal cells, and areas with lymphoma look brighter on the pictures.
Bone marrow biopsy: The doctor uses a thick needle to remove a small sample of bone and bone marrow from your hipbone or another large bone. Local anesthesia can help control pain. A pathologist looks for Hodgkin lymphoma cells in the sample.

Other staging procedures may include biopsies of other lymph nodes, the liver, or other tissue.
The doctor considers the following to determine the stage of Hodgkin lymphoma:

The number of lymph nodes that have Hodgkin lymphoma cells
Whether these lymph nodes are on one or both sides of the diaphragm (see picture)
Whether the disease has spread to the bone marrow, spleen, liver, or lung.

The stages of Hodgkin lymphoma are as follows:

Stage I: The lymphoma cells are in one lymph node group (such as in the neck or underarm). Or, if the lymphoma cells are not in the lymph nodes, they are in only one part of a tissue or an organ (such as the lung).
Stage II: The lymphoma cells are in at least two lymph node groups on the same side of (either above or below) the diaphragm. Or, the lymphoma cells are in one part of a tissue or an organ and the lymph nodes near that organ (on the same side of the diaphragm). There may be lymphoma cells in other lymph node groups on the same side of the diaphragm.
Stage III: The lymphoma cells are in lymph nodes above and below the diaphragm. Lymphoma also may be found in one part of a tissue or an organ (such as the liver, lung, or bone) near these lymph node groups. It may also be found in the spleen.
Stage IV: Lymphoma cells are found in several parts of one or more organs or tissues. Or, the lymphoma is in an organ (such as the liver, lung, or bone) and in distant lymph nodes.
Recurrent: The disease returns after treatment.

In addition to these stage numbers, your doctor may also describe the stage as A or B:

A: You have not had weight loss, drenching night sweats, or fevers.
B: You have had weight loss, drenching night sweats, or fevers.


Radiation Therapy
Stem Cell Transplantation

Your doctor can describe your treatment choices and the expected results. You and your doctor can work together to develop a treatment plan that meets your needs.

Your doctor may refer you to a specialist, or you may ask for a referral. Specialists who treat Hodgkin lymphoma include hematologists, medical oncologists, and radiation oncologists . Your doctor may suggest that you choose an oncologist who specializes in the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma. Often, such doctors are associated with major academic centers. Your health care team may also include an oncology nurse and a registered dietitian.

The choice of treatment depends mainly on the following:

The type of your Hodgkin lymphoma (most people have classical Hodgkin lymphoma)
Its stage (where the lymphoma is found)
Whether you have a tumor that is more than 4 inches (10 centimeters) wide
Your age
Whether you’ve had weight loss, drenching night sweats, or fevers.

People with Hodgkin lymphoma may be treated with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or both.

If Hodgkin lymphoma comes back after treatment, doctors call this a relapse or recurrence. People with Hodgkin lymphoma that comes back after treatment may receive high doses of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or both, followed by stem cell transplantation.

You may want to know about side effects and how treatment may change your normal activities. Because chemotherapy and radiation therapy often damage healthy cells and tissues, side effects are common. Side effects may not be the same for each person, and they may change from one treatment session to the next. Before treatment starts, your health care team will explain possible side effects and suggest ways to help you manage them. The younger a person is, the easier it may be to cope with treatment and its side effects.

You may want to talk to your doctor about taking part in a clinical trial, a research study of new treatment methods. See the Taking Part in Cancer Research section.
You may want to ask your doctor these questions before you begin treatment:

What type of Hodgkin lymphoma do I have? May I have a copy of the report from the pathologist?
What is the stage of my disease? Where are the tumors?
What are my treatment choices? Which do you recommend for me? Why?
Will I have more than one kind of treatment?
What are the expected benefits of each kind of treatment?
What are the risks and possible side effects of each treatment? What can we do to control the side effects?
How long will the treatment last?
What can I do to prepare for treatment?
Will I need to stay in the hospital? If so, for how long?
What is the treatment likely to cost? Will my insurance cover the cost?
How will treatment affect my normal activities?
Would a clinical trial be right for me?
How often should I have checkups after treatment?


Chemotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma uses drugs to kill lymphoma cells. It is called systemic therapy because the drugs travel through the bloodstream. The drugs can reach lymphoma cells in almost all parts of the body.

Usually, more than one drug is given. Most drugs for Hodgkin lymphoma are given through a vein (intravenous), but some are taken by mouth.

Chemotherapy is given in cycles. You have a treatment period followed by a rest period. The length of the rest period and the number of treatment cycles depend on the stage of your disease and on the anticancer drugs used.

You may have your treatment in a clinic, at the doctor’s office, or at home. Some people may need to stay in the hospital for treatment.

The side effects depend mainly on which drugs are given and how much. The drugs can harm normal cells that divide rapidly:

Blood cells: When chemotherapy lowers the levels of healthy blood cells, you are more likely to get infections, bruise or bleed easily, and feel very weak and tired. Your health care team gives you blood tests to check for low levels of blood cells. If levels are low, there are medicines that can help your body make new blood cells.
Cells in hair roots: Chemotherapy may cause hair loss. If you lose your hair, it will grow back, but it may be somewhat different in color and texture.
Cells that line the digestive tract: Chemotherapy can cause poor appetite, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, or mouth and lip sores. Ask your health care team about medicines and other ways to help you cope with these problems.

Some types of chemotherapy can cause infertility:

Men: Chemotherapy may damage sperm cells. Because these changes to sperm may be permanent, some men have their sperm frozen and stored before treatment (sperm banking).
Women: Chemotherapy may damage the ovaries. Women who may want to get pregnant in the future should ask their health care team about ways to preserve their eggs before treatment starts.

Some of the drugs used for Hodgkin lymphoma may cause heart disease or cancer later on. See the Follow-up Care section for information about checkups after treatment.
You may want to ask your doctor these questions before having chemotherapy:

Which drugs will I have? What are the expected benefits?
When will treatment start? When will it end? How often will I have treatments?
Where will I go for treatment? Will I be able to drive home afterward?
What can I do to take care of myself during treatment?
How will we know the treatment is working?
What side effects should I tell you about? Can I prevent or treat any of these side effects?
Will there be lasting side effects?

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy) for Hodgkin lymphoma uses high-energy rays to kill lymphoma cells. It can shrink tumors and help control pain.

A large machine aims the rays at the lymph node areas affected by lymphoma. This is local therapy because it affects cells in the treated area only. Most people go to a hospital or clinic for treatment 5 days a week for several weeks.

The side effects of radiation therapy depend mainly on the dose of radiation and the part of the body that is treated. For example, radiation to your abdomen can cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. When your chest and neck are treated, you may have a dry, sore throat and some trouble swallowing.

In addition, your skin in the area being treated may become red, dry, and tender. You also may lose your hair in the treated area.

Many people become very tired during radiation therapy, especially in the later weeks of treatment. Resting is important, but doctors usually advise people to try to stay as active as they can.

Although the side effects of radiation therapy can be distressing, they can usually be treated or controlled. You can talk with your doctor about ways to ease these problems.

It may also help to know that, in most cases, the side effects are not permanent. However, you may want to discuss with your doctor the possible long-term effects of radiation treatment. After treatment is over, you may have an increased chance of developing a second cancer. Also, radiation therapy aimed at the chest may cause heart disease or lung damage.

Radiation therapy aimed at the pelvis can cause infertility. Loss of fertility may be temporary or permanent, depending on your age:

Men: If radiation therapy is aimed at the pelvic area, the testes may be harmed. Sperm banking before treatment may be a choice.
Women: Radiation aimed at the pelvic area can harm the ovaries. Menstrual periods may stop, and women may have hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Menstrual periods are more likely to return for younger women. Women who may want to get pregnant after radiation therapy should ask their health care team about ways to preserve their eggs before treatment starts.

You may want to ask your doctor these questions before having radiation therapy:

Why do I need this treatment?
When will the treatments begin? When will they end?
How will I feel during treatment?
How will we know if the radiation treatment is working?
Are there any lasting side effects?

Stem Cell Transplantation

If Hodgkin lymphoma returns after treatment, you may receive stem cell transplantation. A transplant of your own blood-forming stem cells (autologous stem cell transplantation) allows you to receive high doses of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or both. The high doses destroy both Hodgkin lymphoma cells and healthy blood cells in the bone marrow.

Stem cell transplants take place in the hospital. Before you receive high-dose treatment, your stem cells are removed and may be treated to kill lymphoma cells that may be present. Your stem cells are frozen and stored. After you receive high-dose treatment to kill Hodgkin lymphoma cells, your stored stem cells are thawed and given back to you through a flexible tube placed in a large vein in your neck or chest area. New blood cells develop from the transplanted stem cells.

Article by
HCG cancer centre

Cartilage Injury : Treatments

Cartilage Injury Treatments

In some cases arthroscopy can be used to ‘smooth’ the cartilage. Although new cartilage cannot grow to take its place, scar tissue appears.
It is also possible to transplant some cartilage from an uninjured part of the knee. Another option is to remove some normal cartilage cells, reproduce them in a lab and then later reimplant them into the damaged area so that new cartilage will grow.

Know More

Detached Cartilage of Bone in the Knee Joint

If the injury is fairly recent, it is possible to put the piece back in place. More commonly, the loose body may be removed by arthroscopy.
Cartilage Restoration

Cartilage Restoration is a procedure where a patient’s knee is resurfaced, realigned and stabilized thereby avoiding a joint replacement. Cartilage restoration is especially effective in patients who are under 50 and active.

Articular cartilage is a firm, smooth and slippery covering on the ends of bones that protects and cushions the bone joint. Injuries to this cartilage can cause pain and swelling. If partially or fully detached injured cartilage can cause mechanical symptoms such as “locking up or “catching.” If various non-operative treatments fail, surgery may be required. One of the surgical options is cartilage restoration.

There are two types of cartilage restoration:
ACI (Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation)

ACI is indicated for larger areas of full thickness cartilage loss, and requires two surgeries. First we arthroscopically harvest normal cartilage cells from one area of the knee not needed. The second surgery is an open surgery where we implant the cartilage cells back into knee to repair the damaged area.The cells in a gel form which solidify when placed in the cartilage defect area within 10 minutes.

Microfracturing is a technique in which arthroscopically multiple small holes are put in the sub chondylar bone so that bone marrow can bring in blood supply and bent the cartilage defect with fibro cartilage.

In order to provide optimum environment for cartilage to heal Visscosupplementation is injecting a solution of hyaluronic acid. It is used in association with Microfracturing.
Osteochondral Transplant

Cartilage and bone transplants are indicated when the damaged area is very large, if there is failure of one of the other techniques, or if bone is also injured along with the cartilage. This is when cartilage and bone plugs are harvested from either an uninjured non-weight bearing area of the knee, or from a donor (cadaver), and then transplanted to cover the injured area of bone and cartilage.

Cartilage restoration surgery can take 1-4 hours depending on the injury.

Recovery varies but can take 2-3 months before weight-bearing activities can be pursued

Article by
Apollo Hospitals

Microdermabrasion; Treatments

Microdermabrasion- Deparment of Dermatology

Microdermabrasion is used to treat. Enlarged pores. Hyperpigmentation. Superficial creases. Mild non-inflammatory acne scarring, sun damaged skin, dull and blemished skin, Stretch marks, Scar revision, face and body peeling.

During Microdermabrasion, aluminiumoxide crystals are blown into the skin through a sterile tipped tube at half to one atmosphere, pressure and vacuumed out under the same pressure through an adjoining aperture. The crystals remove a very superficial layer of the upper half of the skin called epidermis.

This is an outpatient training, and is best done by trained dermatologists. Each session lasts from 5 to 15 minutes, and one can go back to work after the treatment session.

Article by apollo Hospitals

High Tibial Osteotomy : Treatments

Abrasion Arthroplasty with High Tibial Osteotomy

Abrasion Arthroplasty with High Tibial Osteotomy for
treatment of sever osteoarthritis – a follow up subjective
Since 1980 we have started treatment of advanced osteoarthritis knee
by abrasion under arthroscopic guidance. But since 1985 we have started the
combination of Arthroscopic Abrasion Arthroplasty (AAA) and High Tibial
Osteotomy (HTO).
Aim of the study
To present the follow up results of AAA and HTO performed to patients
with advanced varus osteoarthritis knee; who are candidates for Total Knee
Replacement (TKR) or Unicompartmental Knee Replacement (UKR)
Materials and methods
All patients in this study were those suffering from advanced (severe)
knee joint varus osteoarthritis. The patients were of any age, any gender, and
the most important point is that the patient must accept the 6-8 weeks nonweight
bearing rehabilitation program. The patient also my be obese (mild) but
not morbid obesity. All our patient were candidate for artificial prosthesis (they
mentioned they had already date for TKR & UTKR), they search about an alternative
to prosthesis.
Since 1985 till 2006 more than 1.500 patients with advanced osteoarthritis
of medial knee compartment; underwent AAA with HTO at the clinic of Dr
Witwity, and Oxford score was sent to 946 patients till 2003 as we are concerning
with patients more than three years follow up-also some patient come for
metal removal and second look also was included. The Oxford 12 points questionnaire
is reliable and used by many surgeons to evaluate the patients with
TKR &UKR.509 patients sent their answers, 246 females and 263 males, 260
Lt knee, 249 Rt knee and 19 were bilateral. Average age 60 years (29 – 84

Technique of the operation
Arthroscopic Abrasion Arthroplasty with High Tibial Osteotomy done
for all patients with grade IV chodromalacia and sclerotic lesion medial compartmental
knee osteoarthritis (bare bone).
AAA is multiple tissue debridement procedure and it is consisted of
Abrasion, which must be strictly intra-cortical, preserving the tide mark as a
vital bearing zone for the expected newly formed fibrocartlige. Only 1-3 mm is
abraded till the appearance of the superficial blood vessels which take the salt
and pepper appearance (minute dark red tinny vessels against pale white background
of abraded bone). In few number patients Micro-fracture technique is
done using special sharp knife to reach the deep cortical layers without disturbing
the tide-mark line

Hypospadias : Treatments

Hypospadias Repair

We feel that parents should be involved in decision making at every stage. This is an overview of the pathophysiology of hypospadias and possible treatment options.
What is hypospadias?

Hypospadias is abnormal growth and development of the tissues on the ventral (under-surface) aspect of the penis. This may cause abnormal opening of the urine tube anywhere from the scrotum up to the penile tip, curvature of the penis and problems while passing urine in standing position.
Why does it happen?

The exact cause is not known but many factors including genetic factors may contribute.

When the penis is being formed the urine tube initially is open sulcus that later on closes to form a tube. This closure begins from the base of the penis and progresses to its normal location at the tip. If this process gets interrupted in-between then the opening may remain at an abnormal place.
What are the types of hypospadias?

Hypospadias can be of various types depending on the location of this opening of urine tube (urethra). It can be glanular (on glans), coronal (at the sulcus between the glans and the body of penis), on the penile shaft (this type is divided in to 2 subgroups proximal and distal shaft) and peno-scrotal at the junction of penis and scrotum. Very rarely the scrotal halves remain separate and it opens directly on the perineum (perineal)
Can there be other associated problems?

This condition is rarely associated with malformations of kidney and other parts of genitourinary system
What is correct age for surgery?

Surgery can be performed at any age after 6 months of age. When it is corrected early, child will have no memory of it. Even older boys usually do not have problems with the surgery. After complete healing there are little noticeable marks of the operation. A successful repair lasts lifetime; including periods of rapid penile growth.
What operation will correct the problem?

Hypospadias repair transfers the location of urine tube from more proximal one (abnormal) to its normal position at the tip. It is done under general anaesthesia, meaning that he will be sound asleep during the surgery. This surgery takes between 1 to 2 hours.
What Is Hypospadias Repair?

Penis acts as a conduit for the urine and sperms while they leave the body. Both these are expelled out through a tube called urethra (referred as urine tube elsewhere for understanding) which opens at the end of the penis. Most of the children will also have ventral bending of the penis (when erect). The hypospadias repair surgery will reposition the opening and correct the bending to give the penis a more normal appearance.

The surgery will deal with following things

Creating the urine tube that has failed to form
Relocating its opening to the tip of the penis
Straightening the penile shaft if curved
Removal/ reshaping the abnormal foreskin
In complicated cases more extensive or stages repair may be necessary.

Which anaesthesia will be used?

This operation is usually performed under general anaesthesia. General anaesthesia will make the child go into deep sleep. General anaesthesia makes the surgery easier and safer as the child will not feel any pain or have any memory of it.

Caudal block is given along with general anaesthesia. It has two advantages; it blocks pain in the low back and trunk during and following the surgery and will reduce the requirements of GA medicines.
After the operation

Child can start eating and drinking a little at a time within 2 hours of surgery and can resume normal eating and drinking as early as he feels.

There will be a tube coming out from the tip of the penis connected to urine bag. Staff will teach you regarding empting the bag. Child carries the bag to home and it will be removed after a week or 10 days.

If a dressing was used, you will be told how to care for it. An ointment may be recommended or prescribed for you to use with the dressing.

If you notice a fever higher than 101.4˚F, bleeding or foul smelling drainage from the area around the repair, call the hospital.
Special needs

If your child has any special needs or health issues you feel the doctor needs to know about, please call your doctor’s office before the surgery and ask to speak with a nurse. It is important to notify us in advance about any special needs your child might have.

Article by
Sparsh Hospirals,

Salivary gland cancer: Treatments

Salivary gland cancer surgery hospitals in India

A salivary gland tumor is an uncontrolled growth of cells that originates in one of the many saliva-producing glands in the mouth. Salivary gland cancer surgery in India is now days performed in most prominent cities of India at Hyderabad, Mumbai, Delhi and Bangalore. Salivary gland cancer surgery hospitals in India are highly equipped with best treatment facilities. Salivary gland cancer is a cancer that occurs in one of the salivary glands in your mouth, neck or throat. Salivary gland cancer may not cause any symptoms and is found during a regular dental check-up or physical exam. Symptoms caused by salivary gland cancer also may be caused by other conditions. Because of most advanced treatment facilities and most expert cancer surgeons, the success rate of surgical treatment in salivary gland cancer surgery in HCG Cancer centre, Bangalore in India is very good.

Treatment Facilities.

Now it is possible to cure salivary gland cancer with a surgical treatment, as most advanced cancer surgery techniques are available in salivary gland cancer surgery hospitals in India and are being successfully used for patients’ treatment. Surgery is not a solution of all cancers; it always depends on the stage of cancer, requirements, and health. But if surgery is required then it is very important to get it done as early as possible because any delay in getting treatment spreads cancer. In most cases, surgery is done to remove the cancer and some of the nearby tissue. If the cancer is a high grade or if it has spread to the lymph nodes, the doctor may suggest removing the nodes as well. Since salivary gland tumors often start in the parotid gland, that operation will be described first. The facial nerve, which controls movement of the face, passes through the parotid gland. This makes the surgery complicated. If it looks like the surgeon will need to remove the facial nerve, ask about ways to repair the nerve and ways to treat the side effects. If your cancer is in the submandibular or sublingual glands, the surgeon will remove the entire gland and perhaps some of the nearby tissue or bone. Several important nerves pass through or near these glands. These nerves control tongue movement, as well as feeling and taste. The surgeon may need to remove some of these nerves. If your cancer is in the minor salivary glands, the surgeon usually removes some tissue around the cancer along with the cancer. The exact details depend on the size and place of the cancer. There can be side effects from each of the different kinds of surgery, especially if facial nerves or other nerves need to be removed. Talk to your doctor about what to expect after your surgery and what measures you can take to help reduce any side effects.

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Nose bleeding : Treatments

Epistaxis is an important otorhinolaryngological emergency, which usually has an apparent etiology, frequently local trauma in children. Here we present a case report wherein the epistaxis was recalcitrant, and proved to have a psychiatric disorder as an underlying basis. The child was diagnosed with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, hyperactive type, which led to trauma to nasal mucosa due to frequent and uncontrolled nose picking. Treatment with atomoxetine controlled the patient’s symptoms and led to a remission of epistaxis.


Children commonly present with nosebleed and these episodes are rarely life threatening. The majority of nosebleeds are mild, spontaneous and self-limited. However some children suffer from repeated nosebleeds or, to use its clinical name, ‘recurrent idiopathic epistaxis’. These nosebleeds often cause significant parental concerns and remain a challenging problem to patients and physicians alike [1,2].

Initiating factors include local inflammation, mucosal drying, and local trauma (including nose picking). Most of the studies have emphasized the fact that there are no apparent causes in habitual nose bleeders. However, there may be some underappreciated factors that place many children at risk for injury [3]. One of these factors may be the presence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which is now believed to be the most common neurobehavioral disorder in children[4]. The purpose of this case report is to describe the case of the child with a diagnosis of ADHD who suffered severe recurrent epistaxis, and to highlight the possible importance of this co-morbidity and its treatment in the context of paediatric trauma.


A 12 year old boy presented with a 2 month history of recurrent epistaxis to the emergency department for his fourth episode. The first episode had occurred 2 months back and was treated by local pressure and a haemostatic drug. The second episode occurred 2 weeks later and was treated similarly. A week later, the patient had another bout of nose bleed, heavier this time, which had to be treated with an anterior nasal pack, and silver nitrate cauterization of the wound later on. The current episode was from the same site and needed nasal packing again.

On all occasions there was no history of an apparent physical trauma to the nose, nor were there any symptoms to suggest an upper respiratory infection or allergic rhinitis. There was no bleeding from any other site in the body. The patient was not using any medicines. The patient was not suffering from any diagnosed medical condition. There was no family history of a similar illness.
Physical Examination

On arrival the patient was awake, alert and fully oriented. He was bleeding moderately from left nostril. On physical examination his vital signs were stable. ENT examination showed active bleeding from left anterior nares. Rest of physical examination was normal. All through the examination, the child acted fussy and had difficulty remaining focused on a given task. He continuously rocked and fidgeted in the examination chair. Even frequent reprimanding couldn’t discipline the child. This prompted the attending resident to seek a psychiatric consultation.

Psychiatric Screening

A detailed evaluation revealed a child who had no problems in preschool. In kindergarten, he seemed to learn alphabets and numbers normally. The parents had noticed that he seemed more disorganized and inattentive than his older brother was at the same age. They often had to repeat instructions, and he left tasks half-finished. In primary school the patient had mild difficulty with mathematics, and the teacher use to be concerned about his not listening much of the time. The patients’ school work was inconsistent and he often failed to finish his assignments. The parents also admitted a frequent nose picking behavior of the patient, which they couldn’t correct with even punitive methods.
Mental Status Examination

When the patient was seen in the child and adolescent psychiatry department, he appeared as an attractive teenager who looked his stated age and was of average build but he showed grossly conspicuous behaviour. During interview he constantly shifted position, folded arms behind his head or leaned over the table in front of him and at times fiddled with his nose. He also got out of his seat frequently, played with buttons on clothes and couldn’t sit still. His attitude was over familiar, pushy, demanding and lacking distance. He showed difficulty in sustaining attention and concentration which was elicited in writing and reading task given to him in interview. He was oriented in time, place and person. Intelligence was normal

Diagnostic Inventory:

A diagnosis of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, hyperactive type was suggested.


The patients hemoglobin was decreased at 10.2 gm/dl (11-13 gm/dl), platelet count was normal at 230,000 per microliter (150,000 to 400,000 per microliter). The coagulation profile was normal. TLC & DLC, ESR, RBC indexes were normal. Serum chemistry, TFT, urine exam and X-ray chest were also normal. ECG only showed sinus tachycardia (HR: 108/min).

Management and Course:

The patient was started on atomoxetine at 9 mg/bd, and weekly behavioral therapy sessions (including habit-reversal therapy), aimed at decreasing the nose picking behavior. The dose of atomoxetine was raised two weeks later to 18 mg/bd (calculated @ 0.5 mg/kg/d), while the behavior therapy was continued. The patient was sent for ENT follow-up as well, who after evaluation referred the patient the back, with no alteration in the treatment. The patient was followed up at weekly intervals. At 4 (Four) weeks, the patient’s hyperactive behavior, including nose picking, was much controlled. ENT checkup confirmed healing of the nasal wound. The drug treatment was continued at the same dose and patient continues to follow up on a monthly basis with no further episode of nosebleed.