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Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common type of autoimmune arthritis. It is caused when the immune system is not working properly. RA causes pain and swelling in the wrist and small joints of the hand and feet.
Treatments for RA can stop joint pain and swelling. Treatment also prevents joint damage.

These following joint symptoms are clues to RA:
arthritis

  • Joint pain, tenderness, swelling or stiffness for six weeks or longer
  •  Morning stiffness for 30 minutes or longer
  • More than one joint is affected
  • Small joints (wrists, certain joints of the hands and feet) are affected
  • The same joints on both sides of the body are affected.

Studies show that people who receive early treatment for RA feel better sooner and more often, and are more likely to lead an active life. They also are less likely to have the type of joint damage that leads to joint replacement.

RA is a complex disease, but many advances in treatment have occurred recently. Rheumatologists are doctors who are experts in diagnosing and treating arthritis and other diseases of the joints, muscles and bones. Thus, they are best qualified to make a proper diagnosis of RA. They can also advise patients about the best treatment options.

to know more details:- send in your queries to query@gtsmeditour.com or WhatsApp your latest medical reports to +91-9880149003

STOMACH CANCER

Stomach cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In India too, stomach cancer claims thousands of lives, with a higher number of cases reported in the southern states. Its symptoms are not recognized until it reaches an advanced stage, leading to late diagnosis.

Symptoms:stomach-cancer

  • Discomfort or pain in the stomach area
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Weight loss
  • Vomiting blood or blood in the stool
  • Feeling full or bloated after a small meal

Treatments:

In stomach cancer, the degree of extent of disease is the most important factor that influences choice of treatment. This is where staging assessment becomes critical. Staging of stomach cancer is based on whether the cancer is localized to the stomach or has spread to the lymph nodes or other parts of the body.

Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment for stomach cancer, both globally and in India especially when the cancer is detected in its early stages and limited to the inner lining of the stomach. Treatment of advanced stages of stomach cancer includes chemotherapy and targeted therapy.

 

The good news is that treatment for stomach cancer has evolved over the last decade. These advancements have helped to  improve treatment outcomes and increase patient survival.

To know more details:- send in your queries to query@gtsmeditour.com or WhatsApp your latest medical reports to +91-9880149003.

STEM CELL THERAPY

Stem cells have tremendous promise to help us understand and treat a range of diseases, injuries and other health-related conditions. Their potential is evident in the use of blood stem cells to treat diseases of the blood, a therapy that has saved the lives of thousands of children with leukemia; and can be seen in the use of stem cells for tissue grafts to treat diseases or injury to the bone, skin and surface of the eye. Important clinical trials involving stem cells are underway for many other conditions and researchers continue to explore new avenues using stem cells in medicine.

There is still a lot to learn about stem cells, however, and their current applications as treatments are sometimes exaggerated by the media and other parties who do not fully understand the science and current limitations, and also by “clinics” looking to capitalize on the hype by selling treatments to chronically ill or seriously injured patients. The information on this page is intended to help you understand both the potential and the limitations of stem cells at this point in time, and to help you spot some of the misinformation that is widely circulated by clinics offering unproven treatments.

Stem cell researchers are making great advances in understanding normal development, figuring out what goes wrong in disease and developing and testing potential treatments to help patients. They still have much to learn, however, about how stem cells work in the body and their capacity for healing. Safe and effective treatments for most diseases, conditions and injuries are in the future.

Posterior Vitreous Detachment (PVD): Causes, Symptoms & Treatments

Retinal detachment describes an emergency situation in which a thin layer of tissue (the retina) at the back of the eye pulls away from its normal position.

Retinal detachment separates the retinal cells from the layer of blood vessels that provides oxygen and nourishment. The longer retinal detachment goes untreated, the greater your risk of permanent vision loss in the affected eye.

Warning signs of retinal detachment may include one or all of the following: the sudden appearance of floaters and flashes and reduced vision. Contacting an eye specialist (ophthalmologist) right away can help save your vision.

Symptoms

Retinal detachment itself is painless. But warning signs almost always appear before it occurs or has advanced, such as:

  • The sudden appearance of many floaters — tiny specks that seem to drift through your field of vision
  • Flashes of light in one or both eyes (photopsia)
  • Blurred vision
  • Gradually reduced side (peripheral) vision
  • A curtain-like shadow over your visual field

When to see a doctor

Seek immediate medical attention if you are experiencing the signs or symptoms of retinal detachment. Retinal detachment is a medical emergency in which you can permanently lose your vision.

Causes

There are three different types of retinal detachment:

  • Rhegmatogenous (reg-ma-TODGE-uh-nus). These types of retinal detachments are the most common. Rhegmatogenous detachments are caused by a hole or tear in the retina that allows fluid to pass through and collect underneath the retina, pulling the retina away from underlying tissues. The areas where the retina detaches lose their blood supply and stop working, causing you to lose vision.The most common cause of rhegmatogenous detachment is aging. As you age, the gel-like material that fills the inside of your eye, known as the vitreous (VIT-ree-us), may change in consistency and shrink or become more liquid. Normally, the vitreous separates from the surface of the retina without any complications — a common condition called posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). One complication of this separation is a tear.As the vitreous separates or peels off the retina, it may tug on the retina with enough force to create a retinal tear. Left untreated, the liquid vitreous can pass through the tear into the space behind the retina, causing the retina to become detached.
  • Tractional. This type of detachment can occur when scar tissue grows on the retina’s surface, causing the retina to pull away from the back of the eye. Tractional detachment is typically seen in people who have poorly controlled diabetes or other conditions.
  • Exudative. In this type of detachment, fluid accumulates beneath the retina, but there are no holes or tears in the retina. Exudative detachment can be caused by age-related macular degeneration, injury to the eye, tumors or inflammatory disorders.

Diagnosis

Your doctor may use the following tests, instruments and procedures to diagnose retinal detachment:

  • Retinal examination. The doctor may use an instrument with a bright light and special lenses to examine the back of your eye, including the retina. This type of device provides a highly detailed view of your whole eye, allowing the doctor to see any retinal holes, tears or detachments.
  • Ultrasound imaging. Your doctor may use this test if bleeding has occurred in the eye, making it difficult to see your retina.

Your doctor will likely examine both eyes even if you have symptoms in just one. If a tear is not identified at this visit, your doctor may ask you to return within a few weeks to confirm that your eye has not developed a delayed tear as a result of the same vitreous separation. Also, if you experience new symptoms, it’s important to return to your doctor right away.

Treatment

Surgery is almost always used to repair a retinal tear, hole or detachment. Various techniques are available. Ask your ophthalmologist about the risks and benefits of your treatment options. Together you can determine what procedure or combination of procedures is best for you.

Retinal tears

When a retinal tear or hole hasn’t yet progressed to detachment, your eye surgeon may suggest one of the following procedures to prevent retinal detachment and preserve vision.

  • Laser surgery (photocoagulation). The surgeon directs a laser beam into the eye through the pupil. The laser makes burns around the retinal tear, creating scarring that usually “welds” the retina to underlying tissue.
  • Freezing (cryopexy). After giving you a local anesthetic to numb your eye, the surgeon applies a freezing probe to the outer surface of the eye directly over the tear. The freezing causes a scar that helps secure the retina to the eye wall.

Both of these procedures are done on an outpatient basis. After your procedure, you’ll likely be advised to avoid activities that might jar the eyes — such as running — for a couple of weeks or so

If your retina has detached, you’ll need surgery to repair it, preferably within days of a diagnosis. The type of surgery your surgeon recommends will depend on several factors, including how severe the detachment is.

  • Injecting air or gas into your eye. In this procedure, called pneumatic retinopexy (RET-ih-no-pek-see), the surgeon injects a bubble of air or gas into the center part of the eye (the vitreous cavity). If positioned properly, the bubble pushes the area of the retina containing the hole or holes against the wall of the eye, stopping the flow of fluid into the space behind the retina. Your doctor also uses cryopexy during the procedure to repair the retinal break.Fluid that had collected under the retina is absorbed by itself, and the retina can then adhere to the wall of your eye. You may need to hold your head in a certain position for up to several days to keep the bubble in the proper position. The bubble eventually will reabsorb on its own.
  • Indenting the surface of your eye. This procedure, called scleral (SKLAIR-ul) buckling, involves the surgeon sewing (suturing) a piece of silicone material to the white of your eye (sclera) over the affected area. This procedure indents the wall of the eye and relieves some of the force caused by the vitreous tugging on the retina.If you have several tears or holes or an extensive detachment, your surgeon may create a scleral buckle that encircles your entire eye like a belt. The buckle is placed in a way that doesn’t block your vision, and it usually remains in place permanently.
  • Draining and replacing the fluid in the eye. In this procedure, called vitrectomy (vih-TREK-tuh-me), the surgeon removes the vitreous along with any tissue that is tugging on the retina. Air, gas or silicone oil is then injected into the vitreous space to help flatten the retina.Eventually the air, gas or liquid will be absorbed, and the vitreous space will refill with body fluid. If silicone oil was used, it may be surgically removed months later.Vitrectomy may be combined with a scleral buckling procedure.

Risk factors

The following factors increase your risk of retinal detachment:

  • Aging — retinal detachment is more common in people over age 50
  • Previous retinal detachment in one eye
  • Family history of retinal detachment
  • Extreme nearsightedness (myopia)
  • Previous eye surgery, such as cataract removal
  • Previous severe eye injury
  • Previous other eye disease or disorder, including retinoschisis, uveitis or thinning of the peripheral retina (lattice degeneration)

BARIATRIC SURGERY

Bariatric surgical procedures cause weight loss by restricting the amount of food the stomach can hold, causing malabsorption of nutrients, or by a combination of both gastric restriction and malabsorption. Bariatric procedures also often cause hormonal changes. Most weight loss surgeries today are performed using minimally invasive techniques (laparoscopic surgery).

The most common bariatric surgery procedures are gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, adjustable gastric band, and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch.

Procedures:

  • Gastric Bypass
  • Sleeve Gastrectomy
  • Adjustable Gastric Band
  • Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch (BPD/DS)

Gastric Bypass

The Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass – often called gastric bypass – is considered the ‘gold standard’ of weight loss surgery

Sleeve Gastrectomy

The Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy – often called the sleeve – is performed by removing approximately 80 percent of the stomach. The remaining stomach is a tubular pouch that resembles a banana

Adjustable Gastric Band

The Adjustable Gastric Band – often called the band – involves an inflatable band that is placed around the upper portion of the stomach, creating a small stomach pouch above the band, and the rest of the stomach below the band.

Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch (BPD/DS)

The Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch – abbreviated as BPD/DS – is a procedure with two components. First, a smaller, tubular stomach pouch is created by removing a portion of the stomach, very similar to the sleeve gastrectomy. Next, a large portion of the small intestine is bypassed.

 

The health benefits of bariatric surgery and the subsequent weight loss can be dramatic. Conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, asthma, heart disease, acid reflux, sleep apnea and gall bladder disease are just some of the health problems that can improve significantly or disappear all together. Other conditions that can be improved or eliminated include stress urinary incontinence, low back pain, and degenerative joint and disk disease. Life expectancy and the quality of life is dramatically improved with bariatric surgery and weight loss with the resolution of so many health problems experienced by the morbidly obese.

The advantage to bariatric surgery is the weight loss is typically much faster than diet and exercise alone. Bariatric surgery controls the food intake by reducing the amount of food able to be consumed and can also limit caloric absorption, depending on the surgical method chosen