Global Treatment Services

General Surgeries:

The Division of General Surgery provides comprehensive surgical consultation and care in many subspecialties including colon and rectal surgery, trauma and burn, pediatric surgery, endocrine surgery, bariatric surgery etc. Our skilled surgeons are trained in various specialties and many are renowned across the country, or around the world, as leaders in their respective disciplines.

img General, Minimal Access And GI Surgery
The mission of the General Surgery department is to provide the highest quality patient care, encompass, all major components of General, Minimal Access and GI Surgery and the entire faculty to care for patients across a broad spectrum of complex surgical interventions.

Surgery for Gall Stones (Open/ Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy)
Surgery for Groin Hernia (Open/ Laparoscopic TAPP: Transabdominal preperitoneal repair, TEP: Total extraperitoneal repair)
Surgery for Incisional/ Ventral Hernia repair(Open/ Laparoscopic)

Surgery for Gastroesophageal Reflux and Dysphagia (Fundoplication, Laparoscopic Heller Myotomy)
Surgery for Piles (MIPH: Minimal Invasive procedure for hemorrhoids, Stapled haemorrhoidopexy)
Surgery for Appendicitis (Open/ Laparoscopic Appendectomy)

Surgery for Fistula (Fistulectomy, LIFT: Ligation of intersphincteric fistulous tract)
Surgery for Solid organs (Open/ Laparoscopic Spleenectomy, Adrenalectomy)
Surgery for Benign and Malignantcondition of Liver

Surgery for Benign and Malignant condition Small Bowel and Large Bowel (Right and Left Hemicolectomy, APR and Anterior Resection)

Surgery for Cysts/ Lumps (Lipoma, Fibroma, Sebaceous cyst, etc)
Surgery for Breast Lump (Fibroadenoma, Cancer of Breast).

Heart Transplant:

Heart disease is rapidly becoming a major health concern in our country. What is alarming is that many of these patients are young and are first diagnosed in advanced and terminal stages of the disease, with heart failure. Heart failure is a stage wherein the heart can’t function adequately to meet the demands of the body. The patient feels tired, breathless and his body swells up with fluid accumulation. These patients can be managed with medications for some time. However, in terminal stages the medications lose their efficacy and the patient finds it difficult to even speak a few words, walk a few steps or lie down flat.

However, there is hope for such patients. The gold standard in treatment for such patients is Heart Transplantation. The source for a heart is a brain dead patient, i.e., a patient in coma who has no chance of recovering. If the heart in such a patient is normal and functioning, it can be harvested and transplanted to a patient with terminal heart failure. These patients can recover fully and get back to a normal life. Narayana Health is one of the very few centres in the country with an active transplant program.

For patients who are in dire need of a heart transplant and no organ is available, mechanical pumping devices called Ventricular Assist devices or Artificial Hearts are available. These are small pumps which are implanted inside the body, which take over the function of the heart. They run on small 12 volt rechargeable batteries. These batteries and a small controller are situated outside the body and are connected to the pump inside by a small cable that passes through the skin above the umbilicus. They can be left in place until an organ is available for transplant. With technological advancements, the devices currently available are compact, efficient, reliable and very long lasting. They can now be used as alternatives to transplant!

A patient has to be first evaluated to assess the suitability for undergoing an artificial heart implantation. After the surgery, these patients can return to full active life, with very few limitations. Narayana Health has the credit of being the first Hospital in entire Asia to have implanted the latest 3rd generation device for the first time in 2008. Currently we have on offer a device called Heartmate II, made by an American company called Thoratec.

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Narayana Health City

Minimal Access Robotic Surgery:

Minimal Access Robotic Surgery with da Vinci Robot- a highly advanced surgical Robot that performs minimally invasive surgeries with utmost precision. What can be called the next level in surgery, the da Vinci Robot has multi-limbed surgical robot with tiny wrists that bend in all directions, offering precision, dexterity and fine manipulation beyond that of human hand. The Surgeon performs minimally invasive surgeries by manipulating three robotic arms and a video camera that are inserted through small skin incisions, while seated in front of a computer console with 3D video screen and controls. The option of Robotic surgery is available in the Urology, Cardiothoracic, Gynaecology, Oncology, Gastroenterology, Bariatric and Paediatric Surgery Departments at Aster Medcity.

Surgeries performed by the da Vinci:

Prostate, bladder and kidney cancer, Ureteropelvic junction obstruction, Congenital defects Vesico ureteric reflux disease, Multiple fibroids, Uterine and cervical cancer, Uterine and vaginal prolapse, Endometriosis, Vesico-vaginal fistula,Ovarian cyst, Atrial septal defects, Mitral and aortic valve diseaseCoronary, artery disease,Liver disease,Colon and rectal cancer,Obesity and metabolic disorders, Gastric cancer, Easophageal disorders

Advantages of Robotic Surgery:

High-precision surgeryMinimal invasionSignificantly lesser painLesser blood lossFewer surgery related complicationsShort stay at hospitalQuicker recoveryEnables the patient to get back to normal life faster.

Article by:

Aster Medicity

Cervical Cancer: Treatments

Cervical cancer was considered one of the most serious cancers for women. Today, by effective screening with the vaginal Pap smear (also called a Pap test), which can detect cervical precancers and cancers early on, most of the women diagnosed with this illness can be cured.

The cervix is the lower part of the uterus (womb) that extends into the upper end of the vagina. Most cervical cancers begin in an area called the transformation zone, where the inner part of the cervix closest to the uterus (the endocervix) meets the outer part of the cervix closest to the vagina (the ectocervix).

Cervical cancer usually grows slowly, over many years. Before actual cancer cells in the cervix develop, the tissues of the cervix undergo changes at the cellular level — called dysplasia, or precancers.

About 70 percent of cervical cancers are thin, flat cells covering the outer part of the cervix closest to the uterus while the rest of cervical cancers begin in the mucus-producing gland cells that line the inner part of the cervix closest to the uterus. These are known as adenocarcinomas.

Most women with cervical cancer, especially in its earliest stages, do not notice any symptoms — which is why early screening is so important for women. Most common symptoms include:

Pain or bleeding during or after intercourse or douching, or following a pelvic examination.
Pelvic pain.
Unusual discharge from the vagina.
Blood spots or light bleeding other than what a woman would expect from a normal menstrual period.


Cervical cancer is usually diagnosed through a routine office visit screening with a Pap smear followed by other diagnostic and staging tests in the event that cancer cells are found.

Apollo Cancer Institutes have access to an array of services that include therapy to recovery.

The multidisciplinary team approach to screen, counsel, diagnose, and treat women with cervical cancer includes surgical oncologists, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, gynaecologists, radiologists, pathologists, nurses, and paramedics. Advances in screening and diagnosing cervical cancer at early stages, and progress in minimally invasive surgical techniques have transformed the treatment of this cancer in recent years.Use of robotic technologies during operations result in benefits such as decreased pain after surgery, better cosmetic results, and faster recovery.

In more advanced cases of cervical cancer, our innovative approach to measuring the potential spread of cancer to lymph nodes in the pelvis – known as sentinel lymph node mapping – has made it possible to spare many women the long-term discomforts and complications that can otherwise occur.
Radiation Therapy & Chemotherapy

Our multidisciplinary team approach gives each patient the benefit of our expertise and skill in treating every aspect of cervical cancer. When surgery alone is not likely to be an effective cure, our doctors may recommend a combination of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormonal therapy.

Article By
Apollo Hospitals

Prostate cancer: Treatments

Prostate cancer is a disease in men in which cancer develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. Cancers in the urinary tract are part of uro-oncology and usually prostate cancer develops most frequently in men over 50 years.

Early prostate cancer usually causes no symptoms. Often it is diagnosed during the workup for an elevated PSA noticed during a routine checkup. However, symptoms include frequent urination, increased urination at night, difficulty in starting and maintaining a steady stream of urine, blood in the urine, and painful urination. Prostate cancer may also cause problems with sexual function, such as difficulty in achieving erection or painful ejaculation.

Advanced prostate cancer may cause additional symptoms as the disease spreads to other parts of the body. The most common symptom is bone pain, often in the vertebrae (bones of the spine), pelvis or ribs, from cancer which has spread to these bones. Prostate cancer in the spine can also compress the spinal cord, causing leg weakness and urinary and faecal incontinence.

It is the commonest amongst urological cancers, usually occurring with an aging population but recent studies have revealed it being detected increasingly amongst men in their 40’s and 50’s. It is increasingly being seen in Indian men as well perhaps related to progressive Westernisation.

Cancer in the prostate is completely treatable, when diagnosed early, with excellent functional outcomes and hence early detection is the key. However, even when detected at a later stage good treatment options are available for controlling the disease. PSA, a simple blood test is used as a screening tool for patients with prostate cancer aiding both in diagnosis and follow up. Adding value to PSA is a digital rectal examination by a urologist.

If the PSA result is abnormal, patients are advised to undergo prostatic biopsy followed by a comprehensive review by a urological surgeon. This is essential for further diagnosis and treatment options.

Two common causes of high PSA levels besides prostate cancer are enlargement of the prostate (benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH)) and infection in the prostate (prostatitis).

The only test which can fully confirm the diagnosis of prostate cancer is a biopsy, the removal of small pieces of the prostate for microscopic examination. The tissue samples are then examined under a microscope to determine whether cancer cells are present, and to evaluate the microscopic features of any cancer found. Tissue samples can be stained for the presence of PSA and other tumour markers in order to determine the origin of malignant cells that have metastasised. However, prior to a biopsy, several other tools may be used to check the prostate and the urinary tract.

Cystoscopy shows the urinary tract from inside the bladder, using a thin, flexible camera tube inserted down the urethra.

Transrectal ultrasonography creates a picture of the prostate using sound waves from a probe in the rectum.

Radiation therapy – Ionizing radiations are used to kill prostate cancer cells. It can be external beam radiation therapy or brachytherapy. It may be used instead of surgery for early cancers, and in advanced stages of prostate cancer to treat painful bony metastases.

Surgery – Treatment options like Radical Prostatectomy where the whole prostate along with the structures attached to it are removed maybe used. This operation can be done as Robotic Prostatectomy or by laparoscopy or by open method. The urological surgeon will guide the best method depending on various factors. Post operatively majority of the patients are fit for discharge by the next day. A urinary catheter, which is fitted at the end of the operation is ready for removal with a few weeks.

Hormonal therapy – It is used when cancer has spread from the prostate. It may also be given to certain men undergoing radiation therapy or surgery to help prevent the return of their cancer.
Article By
Apollo Hospitals

Leukaemia- cancer : Treatments

Leukaemia is a group of cancers that originate in the bone marrow, producing abnormal white blood cells. These cells form in the bone marrow — the soft, spongy inner portion of certain bones. Acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) are the most common types in adults. Chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) are less common. Although uncommonly diagnosed in adults, ALL represents about 85% of all childhood leukaemias, while about 15% of pediatric leukaemias are AML.

Normal blood-cell development begins in the marrow from the hematopoietic stem cells. These primitive cells are capable of developing into full range of blood cells — red and white blood cells and platelets — each of which makes important contributions to how the body functions. Normal, healthy white blood cells, or leukocytes, have a very short life span — sometimes only a few hours long — and are continuously replenished in the bone marrow. They proceed through their life cycles in an orderly way, and when they die they are replaced by new cells.

Leukaemia develops when the genetic material, or DNA, of a white blood cell is altered giving growth advantage to that leukocyte. The diseased cells cannot mature beyond an early stage in their life cycles, so they never develop into functional cells. Because they do not mature, they become immortal and live indefinitely. The diseased cells — called blasts — eventually take over the bone marrow and do not allow normal RBC, WBC and platelet development.As the numbers of normal cells decline, patients may develop anaemia, a low level of oxygen-carrying red blood cells; infections caused by low counts of micro-organism fighting white blood cells; and bruising and bleeding, resulting from low levels of platelets, the blood component crucial to blood clotting and wound healing. Leukaemic cells may also invade the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and other organs.

Blood cells can become malignant at any stage in their development. The leukaemia cells that result carry many characteristics of the cell from which they originate. Most leukaemias develop from one of two types of white blood cells, lymphocytes or myelocytes, and are classified as lymphocytic leukaemia or myeloid leukaemia, respectively.

Lymphocytic Leukaemia
Myeloid Leukaemia
Acute or Chronic Leukaemia


Apollo Cancer Centres provides multi disciplinary care in treating leukaemia. An expert team of medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, and bone marrow transplant specialists work in coordination to provide treatment. A well equipped blood bank along with Apheresis equipment helps in stem cell collection and in providing blood components to the critically sick patients with low counts. Latest advances in chemotherapy, radiation leukaemia therapy, and bone marrow and/or stem cell transplantation combined with the expertise and skills of doctors from across many medical disciplines offer comprehensive treatment options along with compassionate care.

A collaborative approach is very important when caring for people with leukaemia because many patients require more than one form of treatment. Having a team of specialists working together from the very beginning optimises patient care.

Members of the team meet regularly to review and discuss each patient’s treatment plan. Other specialists, including those who provide psychosocial support, help the team meet the nonmedical needs of both patients and their caregivers. These healthcare professionals work together to provide a full spectrum of supportive and holistic care.

Article by
Apollo Hospitals

Lung Transplant: Treatments

Lung transplant:

A lung transplant is a surgical procedure to replace a diseased or failing lung with a healthy lung, usually from a deceased donor. Depending on your medical condition, a lung transplant may involve replacing one of your lungs or both of them. In some situations, the lungs may be transplanted along with a donor heart.

Unhealthy or damaged lungs can make it difficult for your body to get the oxygen it needs to survive. A variety of diseases and conditions can damage your lungs and hinder their ability to function effectively, including:

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including emphysema
Scarring of the lungs (pulmonary fibrosis)
Cystic fibrosis
Sarcoidosis with advanced fibrosis
Pulmonary hypertension

Lung damage can often be treated with medication or with special breathing devices. But when these measures no longer help or your lung function becomes life-threatening, your doctor might suggest a lung transplant.

HOW to Prepare:
A lung transplant is a surgical procedure to replace a diseased or failing lung with a healthy lung, usually from a deceased donor. Depending on your medical condition, a lung transplant may involve replacing one of your lungs or both of them. In some situations, the lungs may be transplanted along with a donor heart.

The number of people needing lung transplants far exceeds the number of donated lungs available. When a donor organ becomes available, the donor-recipient matching system administered by the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) finds an appropriate match based on specific criteria, including:

Blood type
Size of organ compared with chest cavity
Geographic distance between donor organ and transplant recipient
Severity of the recipient’s lung disease
Recipient’s overall health
Likelihood that the transplant will be successful

While you wait

It may take months or even years before a suitable donor becomes available, but you must be prepared to act quickly when one does. Make sure the transplant team knows how to reach you at all times.

Keep your packed hospital bag handy — including an extra 24-hour supply of your medications — and arrange transportation to the transplant center in advance. You may be expected to arrive at the hospital within just a few hours.
At the hospital

Once you arrive at the hospital, you will undergo tests to make sure the lung is a good match and that you are healthy enough to have the surgery. The donor lung also must be healthy or it will be declined by the transplant team. The transplant will be canceled if it doesn’t appear that the surgery will be a success.

Complications associated with a lung transplant can sometimes be fatal. The two major risks are rejection and infection.
Risk of rejection

Your immune system defends your body against foreign substances. Even with the best possible match between you and the donor, your immune system will try to attack and reject your new lung or lungs.

Your drug regimen after transplant will include medications to suppress your immune system in an effort to prevent organ rejection. You’ll likely take these anti-rejection drugs for the rest of your life.
Side effects of anti-rejection drugs

Anti-rejection drugs may cause noticeable side effects, including:

Weight gain
A rounder face
Facial hair
Stomach problems

Some anti-rejection medications can also increase your risk of developing new or aggravating existing conditions, such as:

Kidney damage

Risk of infection

The anti-rejection drugs suppress your immune system, making your body more vulnerable to infections, particularly in your lungs. To help prevent infections, you should:

Wash your hands often
Take care of your teeth and gums
Protect your skin from scratches and sores
Avoid crowds and people who are ill
Receive appropriate vaccinations

A lung transplant can substantially improve your quality of life. The first year after the transplant — when surgical complications, rejection and infection pose the greatest threats — is the most critical period. Although some people have lived 10 years or more after a lung transplant, only about half the people who undergo the procedure are still alive after five years.

Article By

Fortis Hospitals

Ovarian Cancer: Treatments

Ovarian cancer is the second most common type of gynaecologic cancer. The ovaries are composed of three distinct cell types: epithelial cells, germ cells, and stromal cells. Each of these cell types can give rise to different kinds of tumours. 9 out of 10 ovarian tumours originate in the epithelial cells. Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most common, originating in the epithelial cells that cover the surface of the ovaries.

A family history of ovarian cancer is the strongest risk factor for this disease. Women with mutations in the BRCA genes have a particularly increased risk. Some factors – such as having surgery to remove the ovaries, the use of oral contraceptives, and tubal ligation — have been shown to help prevent ovarian cancer.

The four symptoms much more likely to occur in women with ovarian cancer than women in the general population are bloating, pelvic or abdominal pain, difficulty eating or feeling full quickly, and urinary symptoms.

The two methods currently available to reduce the risk of ovarian cancer from ever occurring are using oral contraceptives or undergoing risk-reducing (prophylactic) surgery to remove the ovary and fallopian tubes.

Ovarian cancer is usually diagnosed with a pelvic examination and transvaginal ultrasound. A surgical biopsy of the tissue is used to confirm the diagnosis; additional imaging tests may be performed to determine if the disease has spread.

The primary treatments for epithelial ovarian cancer are surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, delivered alone or in combination with another therapy.

The standard treatment for ovarian cancer is surgery — for diagnosis, staging (determining the extent of cancer), and tumour debulking, or cytoreduction — followed by chemotherapy.

For cancers that appear to be confined to the ovary, the use of less invasive techniques to remove the tumour(s) is adopted. These laparoscopic procedures, performed through small incisions made into the abdomen, can be used to biopsy and stage, and also to determine the extent of a cancer.

Depending on the size and location of the tumour, laparoscopy also can be used to remove cancerous tissue, meaning that a more extensive open surgery can be avoided. Such surgical approaches result in shorter hospital stays, a quicker recovery, and lower costs, and are as effective as conventional surgery. For selected younger patients, fertility preservation (retaining a normal ovary and the uterus) can be considered.

Early-stage ovarian cancer with minimally invasive surgery is equally effective and accurate as staging during open surgery. Our surgeons use the robotic da Vinci® Surgical System.

To destroy any tumour cells that remain after surgery, chemotherapy is recommended for the majority of women with ovarian cancer. This usually includes a combination of systemic and regional chemotherapy.
Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy may be given over a period of several weeks. It is rarely used as a primary treatment for ovarian cancer, but is sometimes considered after the removal of a recurrent tumour or in the treatment of a recurrence.

Article By

Apollo Hospitals

Pediatric Malignancies: Treatments

Pediatric Malignancies:

Every year, 150 out of every million children in India get diagnosed with cancer. Leukaemia and lymphoma represent the most frequent Pediatric malignancies followed by brain tumours. Bone tumours, neuroblastoma, nephroblastoma are less frequent. Brain tumours are the most common type of solid tumour in children.

Pediatric Leukaemia is the most common form of childhood cancer, and accounts for about 30% of all cancers that affect children and young adults. The number of boys presenting to cancer centres in India are far more than girls and this represents our social bias rather than a true male preponderance.

In the last three decades, treatment for childhood cancers has improved in leaps and strides with an overall survival rate of above 80%. This progress is mostly due to advances in diagnostics, supportive care, multimodal chemotherapy treatment protocols, surgical clearance with precision and high technology radiotherapy delivery.

Leukaemias result from the uncontrolled proliferation of white cells that may be lymphoid or myeloid cell groups. Depending on the type of cell groups involved they are called Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL) the most common type present in 85% of children and Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML) that accounts for approximately 15% of childhood leukaemia.

Children may present with fever, bone pain and reddish skin spots or bleeding from nose and mouth. On examination, most of them have an enlarged liver, spleen or lymph nodes. Bone pain could be indicated by a young child limping or refusing to walk. Signs of bleeding include easy bruising or small spots of blood called petechiae under the skin. Prolonged fever with no apparent cause can also be a presenting symptom. Persistent headache, vomiting, inability to walk or visual symptoms could be features of a brain tumour. A painless bony swelling that has come to light after a trivial injury is the most common presenting feature of a bone tumour. A white eye reflex is an early sign of an eye cancer called retinoblastoma.

Apollo Hospitals is a pioneer in cancer treatment and has dedicated Pediatric Oncology units with clinical expertise to manage all types of childhood cancers. Treatment in the form of chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy or in various combinations is used depending upon the cancer type for maximum benefit after discussion in a multidisciplinary team meeting.

Pediatric surgeons can offer minimally invasive surgery that reduces pain after the procedure, shortens the child’s stay in the hospital and speeds recovery so the child can return to his or her usual daily activities as early as possible. Radiotherapy is delivered with precision and is planned carefully by a team of physicists and radiation oncologists. Small children are sedated by senior anaesthetists to help deliver care with minimum psychological trauma to a child.

At Apollo, our Pediatric neurosurgical team has tremendous amount of clinical experience and endeavours to achieve complete surgical removal of the tumour without major secondary neurologic side effects.

Our pathologists collaborate with the clinical teams and analyse tumour tissues using the latest technology available including flow cytometry and PCR based molecular assays. This approach ensures that children and young adults who do not need high doses of chemotherapy or radiation are spared the side effects of treatment whilst also making sure that patients with more aggressive cancers receive the most effective form of therapy available. Blood bank standards are of international quality and all patients receive filtered blood that has been tested using nucleic acid methods to avoid blood borne viral infections.

Our team of compassionate and competent nurses and paramedical staff ensure that the child and family receive safe and holistic care. Our patient support group is actively involved in counselling families to help them through periods of emotional crisis. Long-term follow up is part of the care to ensure that there are no late side effects of therapy in growing children.

Article By
Apollo Hospitals

Thyroid Cancer: Treatments

The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped gland that lies over trachea (the tube that carries air to lungs). It produces thyroxin which helps to regulate body’s metabolism.

Thyroid nodules are very common in women of the reproductive age group (15-45 years). Palpable nodules are present in 4-7% of females. On ultrasonography 50-60% of women will have nodules in the thyroid gland. Most of these are benign. Treatment of these nodules is needed when they are malignant, are cosmetically deforming, cause compressive symptoms (airway obstruction, facial oedema), or cause functional symptoms (hyperthyroidism).

Malignancy should be suspected when there is a

Prior history of radiation
Rapid growth of the nodules
Extremes of age (less than 15 yrs or more than 45 yrs)
Family history of medullary cancer
Associated with difficulty in swallowing and change in voice

Thyroid cancer usually presents with solitary nodules and neck node metastasis (swelling on side of neck). It may also present with compressive symptoms (airway obstruction, facial oedema, etc) and bone pain (mainly flat bones). Diffuse enlargement of the thyroid gland occurs in benign conditions (hypo or hyperthyroidism). It is managed medically and will not need surgery.

Ultrasound done by an expert sonologist is the investigation of choice. It helps to characterise the nodule (benign or malignant). It can be used to target a biopsy (FNAC). Ultrasound is used in the follow–up of benign nodules. FNAC (fine needle aspiration cytology) from the nodule is done as an outpatient procedure. A tissue sample is aspirated using a small bore needle and sent for pathological examination. It helps in reaching a diagnosis and planning treatment.

Thyroid cancers are various types. These are papillary, follicular, medullary and anaplastic carcinomas of the thyroid. Papillary cancer is the most common form of thyroid cancer (80-85%). It usually spreads to lymph nodes in the neck. 95% of the patients are usually cured of this cancer.

The main stay of treatment is surgery. Any tumour more than 1.5 cm will need total thyroidectomy with central compartment nodal clearance. Neck dissection needs to done if lateral neck nodes are present. Tumours invading trachea, will need either wedge resection or resection and end to end anastomosis. Tumours invading vascular structures (IJV), will need removal of the vein or the vein can be opened and thrombus can be delivered.
Radioactive Iodine Therapy (RAI)

This causes the destruction of the thyroid remnant and it is also used to treat metastatic cancer.

Medullary thyroid cancer accounts for about 5% of thyroid cancers. They are usually treated by total thyroidectomy and neck dissection. Calcitonin (tumour marker) is used to follow up medullary carcinoma patients. Anaplastic cancer is a relatively rare cancer, and is the most aggressive form of thyroid cancer.

Article by
Apollo Hospitals