Bariatrics is a branch of medicine that deals with the control and treatment of obesity and related diseases.Bariatric surgery includes a variety of procedures performed on obese people.The basic principle of bariatric surgery is to restrict food intake and decrease the absorption of food in the stomach and intestines.Evidence suggests that bariatric surgery may lower death rates for patients with severe obesity, especially when coupled with healthy eating and lifestyle changes after surgery.
Principle of Bariatric surgery
Obesity is defined as having a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or more. Classes 2 (BMI 30-40)and 3 BMI(40 and more), also known as severe obesity, are often hard to treat with diet and exercise alone.Bariatric surgery works by alter or interrupt the digestion process so that food is not broken down and absorbed in the usual way. A reduction in the amount of nutrients and calories absorbed enables patients to lose weight and decrease their risk for obesity-related health risks or disorders.Some types of bariatric surgeries make stomach smaller, allowing to eat and drink less at one time . Other bariatric surgeries also change your small intestine.
Bariatric surgery also may be an option if you have serious health problems, such as type 2 diabetes or sleep apnea, related to obesity. Bariatric surgery can improve many of the medical conditions linked to obesity, especially type 2 diabetes.
Types of Bariatric surgery
Most weight loss surgeries today are performed using minimally invasive techniques or laparoscopic surgery.The most common bariatric surgery procedures are gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, adjustable gastric band, and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch.
The Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass – often called gastric bypass – is considered the ‘gold standard’ of weight loss surgery.It is done by stapling your stomach which creates a small pouch in the upper section. The staples make your stomach much smaller, so you eat less and feel full sooner.The procedure also involves cutting small intestine and atatching the lower part of it directly to the small stomach pouch. Food then bypasses most of the stomach and the upper part of your small intestine so your body absorbs fewer calories.
The Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy – often called the sleeve – is performed by removing approximately 80 percent of the stomach. The remaining stomach is a tubular pouch (banana shaped section) that is closed with staples. Like gastric band surgery, this surgery reduces the amount of food that can fit in your stomach, making you feel full sooner.
Adjustable gastric band
The Adjustable Gastric Band – often called the band – involves an inflatable band that is placed around the upper portion of the stomach, creating a small stomach pouch above the band, and the rest of the stomach below the band.The band has a circular balloon inside that is filled with salt solution. The surgeon can adjust the size of the opening from the pouch to the rest of your stomach by injecting or removing the solution through a small device called a port placed under your skin.
The Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch – abbreviated as BPD/DS – is a procedure with two components. First, a smaller, tubular stomach pouch is created by removing a portion of the stomach, very similar to the sleeve gastrectomy. Next, a large portion of the small intestine is bypassed.This type of surgery allows you to lose more weight than the other three.
Candidates for bariatric surgery
For adults who have
- a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or more, OR
- a BMI of 35 or more with a serious health problem linked to obesity, such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, or sleep apnea
- a BMI of 30 or more with a serious health problem linked to obesity, for the gastric band only
For teens who have gone through puberty and reached their adult height, and have
- a BMI of 35 or more with serious obesity-related health problems, such as type 2 diabetes or severe sleep apnea, OR
- a BMI of 40 or more with less severe health problems, such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol
Be it adults or teens,anyone who wants to undergo weight-loss surgery should be prepared for the lifestyle changes they will need to make after the surgery.
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