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Global Treatment Services

Adenocarcinoma: Causes, Symptoms & Treatments

Adenocarcinoma of the lung is a type of non-small cell lung cancer. It occurs when abnormal lung cells multiply out of control and form a tumor. Eventually, tumor cells can spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body including the

  • lymph nodes around and between the lungs
  • liver
  • bones
  • adrenal glands
  • brain.

Adenocarcinoma is the most common form of lung cancer. It’s generally found in smokers. However, it is the most common type of lung cancer in nonsmokers. It is also the most common form of lung cancer in women and people younger than 45.Compared with other types of lung cancer, adenocarcinoma is more likely to be contained in one area. If it is truly localized, it may respond to treatment better than other lung cancers.

As with other forms of lung cancer, your risk of adenocarcinoma increases if you

  • Smoke.
  • Breathe tobacco smoke.
  • Are exposed to radon gas.
  • Are exposed to asbestos. Asbestos is a mineral used in insulation, fireproofing materials, floor and ceiling tiles, automobile brake linings, and other products.
  • Are exposed to other cancer-causing agents at work. These include uranium, arsenic, vinyl chloride, nickel chromates, coal products, mustard gas, chloromethyl ethers, gasoline, and diesel exhaust.


Many people with adenocarcinoma of the lung or other types of lung have no symptoms. It may be detected on chest x-ray or CT scan that is performed for screening or some other medical reason.

All lung cancers, including adenocarcinoma, have similar symptoms. They include

  • a cough that doesn’t go away
  • coughing up blood or mucus
  • wheezing
  • shortness of breath
  • trouble breathing
  • chest pain
  • fever
  • discomfort when swallowing
  • hoarseness
  • weight loss
  • poor appetite.


Treatment depends on the cancer’s stage as well as the patient’s condition, lung function, and other factors. (Some patients may have other lung conditions, such as emphysema or COPD—chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.) If the cancer has not spread, surgery is usually the treatment of choice. There are three types of surgery:

  • Wedge resection removes only a small part of the lung.
  • Lobectomy removes one lobe of the lung.
  • Pneumonectomy removes an entire lung.

Lymph nodes are also removed and examined to see if the cancer has spread.

Some surgeons use video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS) to remove small, early-stage tumors, especially if the tumors are near the outer edge of the lung. (VATS can also be used to diagnose lung cancer.) Because the incisions for VATS are small, this technique is less invasive than a traditional “open” procedure.

Because surgery will remove part or all of a lung, breathing may be more difficult afterwards, especially in patients with other lung conditions (emphysema, for example). Doctors can test lung function prior to surgery and predict how it might be affected by surgery.

  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation

Basel Cell Carcinoma(BCC): Causes & Treatments


Both long-term sun exposure over your lifetime and occasional extended, intense exposure (typically leading to sunburn) combine to cause damage that can lead to BCC. Almost all BCCs occur on parts of the body excessively exposed to the sun — especially the face, ears, neck, scalp, shoulders, and back. On rare occasions, however, tumors develop on unexposed areas. In a few cases, contact with arsenic, exposure to radiation, open sores that resist healing, chronic inflammatory skin conditions, and complications of burns, scars, infections, vaccinations, or even tattoos are contributing factors. It is not possible to pinpoint a precise, single cause for a specific tumor, especially one found on a sun-protected area of the body or in an extremely young individual.

Dermatologists report that more and more people in their twenties and thirties are being treated for this skin cancer.

Workers in occupations that require long hours outdoors and people who spend their leisure time in the sun are particularly susceptible.





After the physician’s examination, the diagnosis of BCC is confirmed with a biopsy. In this procedure, the skin is first numbed with local anesthesia. A sample of the tissue is then removed and sent to be examined under a microscope in the laboratory to seek a definitive diagnosis. If tumor cells are present, treatment is required. Fortunately, there are several effective methods for eliminating BCC. Choice of treatment is based on the type, size, location, and depth of penetration of the tumor, the patient’s age and general health, and the likely outcome to his or her appearance.

Treatment can almost always be performed on an outpatient basis at Hospital.

Treatment options are below.

  • Mohs Micrographic surgery
  • Cryosurgery
  • Laser Surgery
  • Curettage electrodessication
  • Excisional surgery
  • Photodynamic Therapy(PDT)
  • Radiation
  • Chemotherapy



Muscle Spasm : Causes, Symptoms & Treatments

Muscle spasm is an involuntary contraction of a muscle that can cause a great deal of pain. When the facet joints of the spine become injured or inflamed, the muscles supporting the spine can spasm causing low back pain and limitation in motion.

Muscle spasm is typically treated conservatively with muscle relaxants and exercise therapy. Muscle relaxants inhibit painful contractions by sedating the muscle, while exercise stretches the muscles so they are less likely to strain, tear or spasm.

Applying heat therapy using a heat pad may also help relax muscle spasms


Most muscle cramps develop in the leg muscles, particularly in the calf. Besides the sudden, sharp pain, you might also feel or see a hard lump of muscle tissue beneath your skin.

  • Cause severe discomfort
  • Are associated with leg swelling, redness or skin changes
  • Are associated with muscle weakness
  • Happen frequently
  • Don’t improve with self-care
  • Aren’t associated with an obvious cause, such as strenuous exercise


Overuse of a muscle, dehydration, muscle strain or simply holding a position for a prolonged period can cause a muscle cramp. In many cases, however, the cause isn’t known. Although most muscle cramps are harmless, some may be related to an underlying medical condition, such as:

  • Inadequate blood supply. Narrowing of the arteries that deliver blood to your legs (arteriosclerosis of the extremities) can produce cramp-like pain in your legs and feet while you’re exercising. These cramps usually go away soon after you stop exercising.
  • Nerve compression. Compression of nerves in your spine (lumbar stenosis) also can produce cramp-like pain in your legs. The pain usually worsens the longer you walk. Walking in a slightly flexed position — such as you would use when pushing a shopping cart ahead of you — may improve or delay the onset of your symptoms.
  • Mineral depletion. Too little potassium, calcium or magnesium in your diet can contribute to leg cramps. Diuretics — medications often prescribed for high blood pressure — also can deplete these minerals.

How are muscle spasms treated?

First, stop doing whatever triggered the muscle spasm then:

  • Gently stretch and massage the spasmodic muscle.
  • Hold it in a stretched position until the spasms stop.
  • Apply cold to sore/tender muscles or heat to tense/tight muscles.

If the muscle spasm is severe, happens frequently, responds poorly to treatment, and is not related to obvious causes, make an appointment with your doctor. The spasms could be related to underlying factors.

Risk factors

Factors that might increase your risk of muscle cramps include:

  • Age. Older people lose muscle mass, so the remaining muscle can get overstressed more easily.
  • Dehydration. Athletes who become fatigued and dehydrated while participating in warm-weather sports frequently develop muscle cramps.
  • Pregnancy. Muscle cramps also are common during pregnancy.
  • Medical conditions. You might be at higher risk of muscle cramps if you have diabetes, or nerve, liver or thyroid disorders.


Ischemic Strokes: Procedure details

An ischemic stroke occurs when an artery carrying blood to the brain is blocked by a blood clot. There are two types of ischemic strokes:

  • Thrombotic strokes are caused by a blood clot (thrombus) in an artery going to the brain, blocking blood flow. Blood clots usually form in arteries damaged by plaque, a fatty material that can build up inside blood vessels.
  • Embolic strokes are caused by a traveling clot (embolus) that forms elsewhere (usually in the heart or neck arteries); it’s carried in the bloodstream and blocks a smaller blood vessel in or leading to the brain.

Within minutes of the brain being deprived of oxygen-rich blood, brain cells start to die. Left untreated, an ischemic stroke can cause serious disability including paralysis, difficulty talking or swallowing, and memory loss. It can also cause death.

That’s why a stroke is a true medical emergency, and fast treatment is essential to minimize brain damage and possible complications.

How mechanical Thrombectomy(Clot retrieval) works:

When a stroke patient arrives for treatment, the clot-busting medication called tPA is usually delivered directly to the site of the clot. After administering tPA, our stroke specialists use advanced neuro-imaging to evaluate the patient’s brain.

If tPa alone doesn’t dissolve the clot and restore blood flow, and the patient is a good candidate for mechanical thrombectomy, here’s what happens:

  • Using x-ray-guided imaging, a catheter (a long, thin flexible tube) is threaded into an artery in the groin (the femoral artery) and up through the neck, until it reaches the blood clot causing the stroke
  • A device called a stent retriever is inserted into the catheter to the site of the blood clot
  • The stent reaches past the clot, expands to stretch the walls of the artery so blood can flow, and retrieves the clot by snaring it and pulling it backwards, completely removing it from the body and restoring blood flow

Who are the candidate of mechanical Thrombectomy:

Mechanical thrombectomy is performed in patients who have what’s called large-vessel occlusion. This means a blood clot is blocking (occluding) one of the large blood vessels—such as the carotid arteries or cerebral arteries—that supply oxygen-rich blood to the brain.

We also use advanced imaging to map which areas of the brain have an adequate blood supply. This enables us to see tissue that’s already damaged and tissue we can save by restoring blood flow. This gives us a realistic picture of how much we can help each patient by performing mechanical thrombectomy.

Color Blindness: Causes, Symptoms & Treatments

Color blindness occurs when problems with the color-sensing pigments in the eye cause a difficulty or inability to distinguish colors. The majority of people who are colorblind can’t distinguish between red and green. Distinguishing yellows and blues may also be problematic, although this form of color blindness is less common.

The condition ranges from mild to severe. If you’re completely colorblind, which is a condition known as achromatopsia, you see only in gray or black and white. However, this condition is very rare. Most people with color blindness see the following colors in color charts rather than the reds, greens, and teals that others see:

  • yellow
  • gray
  • beige
  • blue

Color blindness is more common in men. Women are more likely to carry the defective chromosome responsible for passing on color blindness, but men are more likely to inherit the condition.


The most common symptom of color blindness is a change in your vision. For example, it may be difficult to distinguish between the red and green traffic light. Colors may seem less bright than before. Different shades of a color may all look the same.

Color blindness is often apparent at a young age when children are learning their colors. In some people, the problem goes undetected because they’ve learned to associate specific colors with certain objects. For example, they know that grass is green, so they call the color they see green. If symptoms are very mild, a person may not realize that they don’t see certain colors.

You should consult your doctor(ophthalmologist) you suspect you or your child is colorblind. They’ll be able to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other more serious health issues.


There are three main types of color blindness. In one type, the person has trouble telling the difference between red and green. In another type, the person has difficulty telling yellow and blue apart. The third type is called achromatopsia. A person with this form can’t perceive any colors at all and everything appears gray or black and white. Achromatopsia is the least common form of color blindness.Color blindness can either be inherited or acquired.

  • Inherited Color Blindness

Inherited color blindness is more common. It’s due to a genetic defect. This means that the condition passes down through the family. Someone who has close family members who are colorblind is more likely to have the condition as well.

  • Acquired Color Blindness

Acquired color blindness develops later in life and can affect men and women equally. Diseases that damage the optic nerve or the retina of the eye can cause acquired color blindness. For that reason, you should alert your doctor if your color vision changes. It might indicate a more serious underlying issue.

Causes of color Blindness:

The eye contains nerve cells called cones that enable the retina, a light-sensitive layer of tissue in the back of your eye, to see colors. Three different kinds of cones absorb various wavelengths of light, and each kind of cone reacts to a different color. Each cone reacts to red, green, or blue. It sends information to the brain to distinguish colors. If one or more of these cones in your retina is damaged or isn’t present, you’ll have difficulty seeing colors properly.


The majority of color vision deficiency is inherited. It typically passes from mother to son. Inherited color blindness doesn’t cause blindness or other vision loss.


You can also have the condition as a result of disease or injury to your retina.

With glaucoma, the internal pressure of the eye, or the intraocular pressure, is too high. The pressure damages the optic nerve, which carries signals from the eye to the brain so that you can see. As a result, your ability to distinguish colors may diminish.

Macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy cause damage to the retina, which is where the cones are located. This causes color blindness. In some cases, it causes blindness.

If you have a cataract, the lens of your eye gradually changes from transparent to opaque. Your color vision may dim as a result.

Other diseases that can affect vision include:

  • diabetes
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • multiple sclerosis


Certain medications can cause changes in color vision. These include the antipsychotic medications chlorpromazine (Thorazine) and thioridazine (Mellaril).

The antibiotic ethambutol (Myambutol), which treats tuberculosis, may cause optic nerve problems and difficulty seeing some colors.


If color blindness occurs as the result of illness or injury, treating the underlying cause may help to improve color detection.

However, there’s no cure for inherited color blindness. Your eye doctor may prescribe tinted glasses or contact lenses that can assist in distinguishing colors.

People who are colorblind often consciously apply certain techniques or use specific tools to make life easier. For example, memorizing the order of the lights from top to bottom on a traffic light removes the need to distinguish its colors. Labeling clothing can assist in matching colors properly. Some software applications transform computer colors into those that colorblind people can see.

If you have inherited color blindness, it’s a lifelong challenge. While it may limit prospects for certain jobs, such as working as an electrician who must tell the difference between color-coded wires, most people find ways to adapt to the condition.

Face – Lift(Rhytidectomy): Procedure details

A face-lift (rhytidectomy) is a cosmetic surgical procedure to create a younger appearance in your face. The procedure can reduce the sagging or folds of skin on the cheeks and jawline and other changes in the shape of your face that occur with age.

During a face-lift, a flap of skin on each side of the face is pulled back, and tissues below the skin are surgically altered to return the contour of the face to a more youthful shape. Before the flap is sutured closed, excess skin is removed.

A neck lift (platysmaplasty) is often done as part of a face-lift to reduce fat deposits and sagging skin on the neck.

A face-lift won’t decrease fine creases or wrinkles in your skin or damage from sun exposure. Other cosmetic procedures can address the appearance or quality of the skin itself.


Why it’s done

As you get older, the appearance and shape of your face is altered because of normal age-related changes. Your skin becomes less elastic and looser, and fat deposits decrease in some areas of your face and increase in others. Age-related changes in your face that may be reduced with a face-lift include the following:

  • Sagging appearance of your cheeks
  • Excess skin at your lower jawline (jowls)
  • Deepening of the fold of skin from the side of your nose to the corner of your mouth
  • Sagging skin and excess fat in the neck (if the procedure includes a neck lift)

A face-lift isn’t a treatment for superficial wrinkles, sun damage, creases around the nose and upper lip, or irregularities in skin color.


Facelift surgery , clinically known as rhytidectomy, is a procedure used to reduce the appearance of facial wrinkles and other telltale signs of aging, with the goal of improving the overall appearance of the face and jaw. Facelift surgery can help to reverse the harmful effects of time, stress, and exposure to the elements. To perform this procedure, a facial plastic surgeon will lift and tighten the underlying muscles of the face to create more aesthetically pleasing contours appearance and rejuvenate the facial structure. Then he or she will remove excess pockets of fat and skin that can contribute to an aged, tired appearance.

An experienced, skilled plastic surgeon will perform this procedure with an artistic eye and extraordinary attention to detail so that patients will be left with negligible scarring and beautiful, natural-looking results. In addition to traditional full facelifts, there are several other variations of the procedure to address specific areas of the face. Many surgeons use advanced, minimally invasive techniques to minimize discomfort and downtime.


A face-lift surgery can cause complications. Some can be managed with appropriate care, medication or surgical correction. Long-term or permanent complications, while rare, can cause significant changes in appearance. The risks include:

  • Hematoma. A collection of blood (hematoma) under the skin that causes swelling and pressure is the most common complication of face-lift surgery. Hematoma formation, which usually occurs with 24 hours of surgery, is treated promptly with surgery to prevent damage to skin and other tissues.
  • Scarring. Incision scars from a face-lift are permanent but typically concealed by the hairline and natural contours of the face and ear. Rarely, incisions can result in raised, red scars. Injections of a corticosteroid medication or other treatments might be used to improve the appearance of scars.
  • Nerve injury. Injury to nerves, while rare, can temporarily or permanently affect nerves that control sensation or muscles. Temporary paralysis of a select muscle, resulting in an uneven facial appearance or expression, or temporary loss of sensation can last a few months to a year. Surgical interventions may offer some improvement.
  • Hair loss. You might experience temporary or permanent hair loss near the incision sites. Permanent hair loss can be addressed with surgery to transplant skin with hair follicles.
  • Skin loss. Rarely, a face-lift can interrupt the blood supply to your facial tissues. This can result in skin loss (sloughing). Sloughing is treated with medications, appropriate wound care and, if necessary, a procedure to minimize scarring.

Like any other type of major surgery, a face-lift poses a risk of bleeding, infection and an adverse reaction to anesthesia. Certain medical conditions or lifestyle habits also can increase your risk of complications. The following factors may present a significant risk or result in unfavorable results, and your doctor may advise against a face-lift.

  • Blood-thinning medications or supplements. Medications or supplements that thin the blood can affect your blood’s ability to clot and increase the risk of hematomas after surgery. These medications include blood thinners (Coumadin, Plavix, others), aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, fish oil and others.
  • Medical conditions. If you have a medical condition that prevents blood clotting, you won’t be able to have a face-lift. Other conditions, such as poorly controlled diabetes or high blood pressure, increase the risk of poor wound healing, hematomas and heart complications.
  • Smoking. Smoking significantly increases the risk of poor wound healing, hematomas and skin loss after a face-lift.
  • Weight fluctuation. If you have a history of repeated weight gain and loss — factors that affect the shape of your face and condition of your skin — the outcome of the surgery may not be satisfactory or may be satisfactory for only a short time.

How you prepare

Initially, you’ll talk to a plastic surgeon about a face-lift. The visit will likely include:

  • Medical history and exam. Prepare to answer questions about past and current medical conditions, previous surgeries, previous plastic surgeries, complications from previous surgeries, history of smoking, and drug or alcohol use. Your surgeon will do a physical exam, may request recent records from your doctor or order a consultation with a specialist if there are any concerns about your ability to undergo surgery.
  • Medication review. Provide the name and dosages of all medications you regularly take, including prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, herbal medications, vitamins and other dietary supplements.
  • Facial exam. Your plastic surgeon will take photos of your face from different angles and close-up photos of some features. The surgeon will also examine your bone structure, shape of your face, fat distribution and quality of your skin to determine your best options for face-lift surgery.
  • Expectations. Your surgeon will ask questions about your expectations for the outcomes of a face-lift. He or she will help you understand how a face-lift will likely change your appearance and what a face-lift doesn’t address, such as fine wrinkles or naturally occurring asymmetry in your face.

Scoliosis: Types , Symptoms, Causes & Treatments

What Is Scoliosis?

Scoliosis affects the spine. Although the spine is sometimes called “the backbone,” it’s not just one bone. It’s made of lots of small bones (called vertebrae) that are connected by a type of elastic tissue called cartilage. This gives people the flexibility to bend, stretch, balance, and even walk.

Scoliosis is when the vertebrae form a curved line instead of being straight. Sometimes they also rotate (twist), like a corkscrew. This can cause health problems.

Types of Scoliosis

Orthopedic specialists (doctors and other providers who treat bone and muscle problems) group scoliosis into types. Knowing the type of scoliosis helps health care providers treat it.

  • Idiopathic scoliosis. This is the most common type of scoliosis. Kids can get it at any age, but most of the time it happens around puberty when a child goes through a growth spurt. Experts don’t know exactly why this type of scoliosis develops, but it runs in some families.
  • Congenital scoliosis. This type of scoliosis happens when something goes wrong with the way some of the vertebrae developed while a baby was in the womb. The problem might not be noticed until a child goes through a growth spurt, usually around age 2 or between 8 and 13.
  • Scoliosis caused by a medical condition. Some kids develop scoliosis because they have a long-term medical problem that affects the muscles or skeletal system. For example, kids with muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy, Marfan syndrome, or osteogenesis imperfecta may get scoliosis. Kids who have had tumors or growths on their spine may also develop scoliosis.


Because of the many possible combinations of curvatures, scoliosis can look different in different children.

  • uneven shoulder heights
  • head not centered with the rest of the body
  • uneven hip heights or positions
  • uneven shoulder blade heights or positions
  • prominent shoulder blade
  • when standing straight, uneven arm lengths
  • when bending forward, the left and right sides of the back are asymmetrical

Symptoms that suggest scoliosis can resemble those of other spinal conditions or deformities, or may result from an injury or infection.


There are several causes of abnormal spinal curves:

In many cases, as in idiopathic scoliosis, there’s no definite cause for (or way to prevent) the spine’s failure to grow as straight as it should. Some babies are born with spinal formation problems that cause the spine to grow unevenly. These include congenital scoliosis, congenital kyphosis, spina bifida or Klippel-Feil anomaly.

Some children have nerve or muscle (neuromuscular) diseases, injuries or other illnesses that cause spinal deformities, such as cerebral palsy, spina bifida or muscular dystrophy. In these conditions, muscle abnormalities combined with the child’s growth result in deformity.

Other causes of scoliosis may include:

  • bone dysplasias: many generalized abnormalities of bone formation are associated with scoliosis
  • connective tissue disorders: conditions with abnormal tissues and ligaments, such as Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
  • differences in leg lengths: mild leg length differences may cause a slight curvature but rarely cause a serious curvature
  • spinal cord injury with paralysis
  • infection
  • tumors


Small curves usually don’t cause problems. But a curve that gets worse can be bad for a person’s health. Very large curves can damage the joints and cause arthritis of the spine. Large curves can make the ribs rub against the pelvis, causing pain. Someone whose spine curves a lot might get lung problems.

If it looks like scoliosis could cause health problems, doctors(spine surgeons) will treat it with a back brace to prevent it from getting worse. In some cases, kids need surgery.

Undescended testicles: Causes, Symptoms & Treatments

Undescended testicles, also known as cryptorchidism, is a fairly common and normally painless congenital condition in which one or both of a baby’s testicles (testes) have not moved into the proper position. One to 2 percent of male infants are affected.

Before a baby boy is born, the testicles form in the child’s abdomen. During the third trimester, the testicles travel from the abdomen, down the groin and into the scrotum (the sack of skin beneath the penis). An undescended testicle doesn’t complete the descent process. The testicle may be located anywhere from the abdomen to the groin and may affect one or both testicles.

Premature babies are affected by undescended testicles at a higher rate. The more premature your baby is, the higher the chance of having an undescended testicle.

In some cases — about 20 percent of affected boys — an undescended testicle will descend (or “drop”) on its own within the child’s first six months of life. Those that don’t will require surgery.


In a baby affected by undescended testicles, one or both of his testicles either appear to be missing or cannot be felt in the scrotum. If both testicles are undescended, the scrotum will look unusually small and flat. If only one testicle is affected, the scrotum may look lopsided.

If your baby’s testicle appears to be “sometimes there and sometimes not,” we call that testicle retractile. It’s a normal condition that requires no treatment.


Experts have yet to identify any single cause of undescended testicles. The following factors may interfere with the normal descent and development of the testicles:

  • abnormal anatomy
  • hormonal problems
  • environmental influences


Surgery is highly recommended in order to reduce the risk of cancer or infertility, to improve your son’s body image through adolescence and adulthood, and to reduce long-term effects and the risk of cancer or infertility. In most cases, doctors(andrology surgeon) are able to repair an undescended testicle with a single, simple operation at around 12 months of age.

What are the complications associated with surgery?

Complications from surgery are relatively rare, but in some cases can include bleeding and infection. The most common complication — which is still quite rare, is when the moved testicle goes back up into the groin. In this case, doctors will need to perform another surgery. In very rare cases, a testicle can lose its blood supply, which will render it nonviable. It will then become scar tissue. But again, this is very rare.

Your son may feel some discomfort after his operation, but most boys feel better after about a day. Your doctor will probably recommend that your son avoid sitting on riding toys for about two weeks in order to prevent injury to the testicle. You can expect annual follow-up examinations so the doctor can check that the testicle is growing normally.

What is the long-term outlook for children with undescended testicles?

Undescended testicles may increase the risk of infertility, especially if both testicles are affected. However, boys who have one undescended testicle tend to father children at the same rate as those who are not affected by the condition at all.

Boys who have two undescended testicles — a much lower percentage of patients — do have a significantly lower fertility rate. A child with undescended testicles is slightly more prone to develop testicular cancer, even after corrective surgery. However, surgery performed before puberty may reduce the risk of developing cancer.

Parents should know that cases of cancer related to undescended testicles are rare. Having the surgery is important in that the testicle is located where a young man can palpate a mass if it should develop.

Glomerulonephritis: Causes, Symptoms & Treatments

Glomerulonephritis is inflammation of the tiny filters in your kidneys. Glomeruli remove excess fluid, electrolytes and waste from your bloodstream and pass them into your urine. Glomerulonephritis can come on suddenly (acute) or gradually (chronic). Glomerulonephritis occurs on its own or as part of another disease, such as lupus or diabetes. Severe or prolonged inflammation associated with glomerulonephritis can damage your kidneys. Treatment depends on the type of glomerulonephritis you have.


Signs and symptoms of glomerulonephritis depend on whether you have the acute or chronic form and the cause.

Glomerulonephritis signs and symptoms include:

  • Pink or cola-colored urine from red blood cells in your urine (hematuria)
  • Foamy urine due to excess protein (proteinuria)
  • High blood pressure (hypertension)
  • Fluid retention (edema) with swelling evident in your face, hands, feet and abdomen


Many conditions can cause glomerulonephritis. Sometimes the disease runs in families and sometimes the cause is unknown. Conditions that can lead to inflammation of the kidneys’ glomeruli include:


  • Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Glomerulonephritis may develop a week or two after recovery from a strep throat infection or, rarely, a skin infection. To fight the infection, your body produces extra antibodies that can eventually settle in the glomeruli, causing inflammation.Children are more likely to develop post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis than are adults, and they’re also more likely to recover quickly.
  • Bacterial endocarditis. Bacteria occasionally can spread through your bloodstream and lodge in your heart, causing an infection of one or more of your heart valves. You’re at greater risk of this condition if you have a heart defect, such as a damaged or artificial heart valve. Bacterial endocarditis is associated with glomerular disease, but the connection between the two is unclear.
  • Viral infections. Viral infections, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and hepatitis C, can trigger glomerulonephritis.

Immune diseases

  • Lupus. A chronic inflammatory disease, lupus can affect many parts of your body, including your skin, joints, kidneys, blood cells, heart and lungs.
  • Goodpasture’s syndrome. A rare immunological lung disorder that can mimic pneumonia, Goodpasture’s syndrome causes bleeding in your lungs as well as glomerulonephritis.
  • IgA nephropathy. Characterized by recurrent episodes of blood in the urine, this primary glomerular disease results from deposits of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the glomeruli. IgA nephropathy can progress for years with no noticeable symptoms.


  • Polyarteritis. This form of vasculitis affects small and medium blood vessels in many parts of your body, such as your heart, kidneys and intestines.
  • Granulomatosis with polyangiitis. This form of vasculitis, formerly known as Wegener’s granulomatosis,  affects small and medium blood vessels in your lungs, upper airways and kidneys.

Conditions likely to cause scarring of the glomeruli

  • High blood pressure. This can damage your kidneys and impair their ability to function normally. Glomerulonephritis can also lead to high blood pressure because it reduces kidney function and can influence how your kidneys handle sodium.
  • Diabetic kidney disease (diabetic nephropathy). This can affect anyone with diabetes, usually taking years to develop. Good control of blood sugar levels and blood pressure might prevent or slow kidney damage.
  • Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Characterized by scattered scarring of some of the glomeruli, this condition can result from another disease or occur for no known reason.

Infrequently, chronic glomerulonephritis runs in families. One inherited form, Alport syndrome, also might impair hearing or vision.

In addition to the causes listed above, glomerulonephritis is associated with certain cancers, such as multiple myeloma, lung cancer and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Treatment: Therapies for associated kidney failure

For acute glomerulonephritis and acute kidney failure, dialysis can help remove excess fluid and control high blood pressure. The only long-term therapies for end-stage kidney disease are kidney dialysis and kidney transplant. When a transplant isn’t possible, often because of poor general health, dialysis is the only option.


Glomerulonephritis can damage your kidneys so that they lose their filtering ability. As a result, dangerous levels of fluid, electrolytes and waste build up in your body.

Possible complications of glomerulonephritis include:

  • Acute kidney failure. Loss of function in the filtering part of the nephron can result in  rapid accumulation of waste products. You might need emergency dialysis — an artificial means of removing extra fluids and waste from your blood — typically by an artificial kidney machine.
  • Chronic kidney disease. Your kidneys gradually lose their filtering ability. Kidney function that deteriorates to less than 10 percent of normal capacity results in end-stage kidney disease, which requires dialysis or a kidney transplant to sustain life.
  • High blood pressure. Damage to your kidneys and the resulting buildup of wastes in the bloodstream can raise your blood pressure.
  • Nephrotic syndrome. With this syndrome, too much protein in your urine results in too little protein in your blood. Nephrotic syndrome can be associated with high blood cholesterol and swelling (edema) of the eyelids, feet and abdomen.

Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation: Causes, Symptoms & Treatments

Atrial fibrillation  is a type of irregular heartbeat. If you have it, your doctor will classify yours by the reason for it and on how long it lasts. When your heartbeat returns to normal within 7 days, on its own or with treatment, it’s known as paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.It can happen a few times a year or as often as every day. It often becomes a permanent condition that needs regular treatment.


  • Heat palpitations — a flutter in your chest or rapid heartbeat
  • Chest pain or pressure
  • Confused
  • Weak or short of energy
  • Dizzy
  • Short of breath
  • Like you have to pee more often
  • Like it’s hard to exercise
  • Tired

You may feel chest pain or pressure. If you do, call 911 right away. You may be having a heart attack.

Causes & Risk Factors

Doctors don’t always know what causes paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. It often happens because things like coronary heart disease or high blood pressure damage your heart. If that damage affects the part of your heart that sends the electrical pulses that control your heartbeat, those pulses can come too fast or at the wrong time.


There are several options to control AFib, or maybe stop it altogether.


If your problem comes from a condition like an overactive thyroid gland or high blood pressure, your doctor will give you medications to control those issues.

Generally, your doctor will try to keep your heartbeat steady and prevent problems like blood clots.

Heart rate control: The most common way to treat atrial fibrillation is with drugs that control your heartbeat.

Electrical Cardioversion:The doctor gives your heart a shock to regulate your heartbeat. She’ll use paddles, or she’ll stick patches called electrodes to your chest.

Surgery: Cardiac Ablation

option 1: Cathedral Ablation

Option 2: Surgery ablation

Option3: AV node ablation