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Skin diseases in sportspersons

The most common disease among sports person in general is skin disease.These dermatological disorders include infections, inflammatory conditions, traumatic entities, environmental encounters, and neoplasms.  Direct and indirect transmission of infectious agents occurs readily by the shear nature of contact competition in the sports environment. So it is important that we recognise  common and uncommon skin disorders of the athlete.

25.March8Skin infections

Skin infection can disrupt both individual and team activities.Below are some of the common skin infections

Herpes gladiatorum
The herpes simplex virus (HSV) causes a recurrent cluster of tender, burning blisters on or around the mouth or lips. In wrestlers, HSV often appears in other places on the body including the neck, torso, and extremities and is commonly referred to as “herpes gladiatorum.” When it affects the fingertip, it is known as “herpetic whitlow.”
Antiviral medications can reduce recurrent infections.

Tinea corporis gladiatorum (Ringworm)
Tinea corporis presents as a circular or ring-shaped, scaly, raised plaque .Tinea corporis, or ringworm, has become a common nuisance in competitive wrestling. Although it is a fairly benign infectious skin disease, it has significant effects on the ability of a wrestler to compete because of infection control issues.
Ringworm of the skin makes the skin itchy and red and creates a round patchy rash that has raised borders and a clear center.Ringworm of the nails may affect one or more nails on the hands or feet. The nails may become thick, white or yellowish, and brittle.
Heaps of sweaty clothes are part of lives of sports persons and so is the risk of getting fungal skin infections.Other fungal infections include is Tinea pedis (athlete’s foot).It  affects the soles and interdigital spaces(between toes and fingers) of the feet. It is commonly associated with peeling, cracking, scaling.Athletes are at increased risk to this condition due to a warm, moist environment inside occlusive footwear, shared pools and treatment tubs, and communal showers.
Treatment for patients with tinea pedis consists of topical antifungal cream unless infection is severe or extensive, in which case oral antifungal therapy is required.

Patients with impetigo develop clusters of red, round, scaly patches with scalloped borders. These patches are often covered with yellow, honey-colored “crust” .There is no burning or tingling sensation in the area before the patches appear. Impetigo typically appears on the lower face, but can quickly and easily spread to the extremities and torso.
It may be transmitted by skin-to-skin contact, by using something infected with the bacteria like an infected towel or sports equipment. Wearing infected clothing is another way to get impetigo.
The treatment of infected athletes requires a dual-pronged approach with both topical and oral antibiotics. Topical mupirocin twice daily in addition to oral dicloxacillin or cephalexin clears impetigo.

Furunculosis is a deeper infection of the hair follicle generally which presents as  hot, tender inflammatory nodule (boil) from which pus can be expressed.
Treatment of patients with any of these growths includes incision and drainage, use of warm compresses and sterile dressings, and appropriate restriction from sports. Use of antibiotics is optional in treatment unless cellulitis is also present, but antibiotics are required for return to sports participation. 

Other diseases

Anaphylaxis is a serious, life-threatening allergic reaction.Athletes who develop exercise-induced anaphylaxis may prevent outbreaks by avoiding food before exercise and extreme temperatures while they exercise.
Almost all sports enthusiasts are at risk of developing traumatic entities such as nail dystrophies, calluses and blisters.
Other more unusual traumatic skin conditions, such as talon noire, jogger’s nipples and mogul’s palm, occur in specific sports.
Winter sport athletes may develop frostbite and swimmers in both fresh and saltwater may develop swimmer’s itch or seabather’s eruption, respectively. Swimmers with fair skin and light hair may also present with unusual green hair that results from the deposition of copper within the hair.
Finally, athletes are at risk of developing both benign and malignant neoplasms. Hockey players, surfers, boxers and football players can develop athlete’s nodules. Outdoor sports enthusiasts are at greater risk of developing melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer.
Several techniques and special clothing exist to help prevent traumatic skin conditions in athletes. Almost all athletes, to some degree, interact with the environment.Athletes spend a great deal of time outdoors, typically during peak hours of ultraviolet exposure. The frequent use of sunscreens and protective clothing will decrease the athlete’s sun exposure.

Daiabetic kidney disease

Kidney is the waste disposal system of our body.The main function of the kidneys is to remove waste from the blood and return the cleaned blood back to the body. But once kidney are damaged ,it is very difficult for them to repair themselves.Kidney failure means the kidneys are no longer able to remove waste and maintain the level of fluid and salts that the body needs.One cause of kidney failure is diabetes mellitus. Over time, the high levels of sugar in the blood damage the millions of tiny filtering units within each kidney. This eventually leads to kidney failure.
24.March7DKidney disease

Condition and symptoms

Healthy kidneys filter about a half cup of blood every minute, removing wastes and extra water to make urine. The urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder through two thin tubes of muscle called ureters, one on each side of your bladder. Your bladder stores urine. Urine leaves the bladder via the urethra, the thin tube that connects to the outside of the body.
Kidney damage from diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy.Kidneys affected by diabetic nephropathy no longer work efficiently, and trace amounts of protein appear in the urine (microalbuminuria). The retained water and salts cause the characteristic fluid retention and, frequently, the blood pressure begins to rise.
For people with diabetes, kidney problems are usually picked up during a check-up by their doctor. At first, the only sign is high protein levels in the urine, but this has no symptoms. It may be years before the kidneys are damaged severely enough to cause symptoms. Some of the symptoms may include fluid retention (oedema of the legs or face),fatigue.headache,nausea,vomiting.


Testing may be the only way to know if you have kidney disease. Get checked if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, or a family history of kidney failure. The sooner you know you have kidney disease, the sooner you can get treatment.

Diabetic nephropathy is diagnosed using a number of tests including:

  • Urine tests – to check protein levels. An abnormally high level of protein in the urine is one of the first signs of diabetic nephropathy.Urine test is done to check for albumin. Albumin is a protein that can pass into the urine when the kidneys are damaged.
  • Blood pressure – regular checks for raised blood pressure are necessary. Elevated blood pressure is caused by diabetic nephropathy and also contributes to its progression.
  • Blood tests – blood test that checks degree of kidney function, how well your kidneys are filtering your blood called GFR. GFR stands for glomerular filtration rate.
  • Biopsy – a small tag of tissue is removed from the kidney, via a slender needle, and examined in a laboratory. This is usually only performed when there is doubt about whether kidney damage is due to diabetes or to another cause.
  • Kidney ultrasound – enables the size of the kidneys to be imaged and allows the arteries to the kidneys to be checked for narrowing that can cause decreased kidney function.


There is no cure for diabetic nephropathy. Treatment must become ever more aggressive as the kidneys deteriorate towards failure. Medical options include:

  • Prevention – this is the best form of treatment and includes good control of blood glucose levels and blood pressure.Important treatments for kidney disease are tight control of blood glucose and blood pressure. Blood pressure has a dramatic effect on the rate at which the disease progresses. Even a mild rise in blood pressure can quickly make kidney disease worsen. Four ways to lower your blood pressure are losing weight, eating less salt, avoiding alcohol and tobacco, and getting regular exercise.
  • Diet – some doctors use with macroalbuminuria is a low-protein diet. Protein seems to increase how hard the kidneys must work. A low-protein diet can decrease protein loss in the urine and increase protein levels in the blood. Never start a low-protein diet without talking to your health care team.
  • Medications – including medications to reduce high blood pressure, particularly angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers to curb kidney damage.
  • Dialysis – or artificial kidney treatment. End stage kidney failure is the failure of the kidney to function at all. Dialysis involves either shunting the patient’s blood through a special machine (haemodialysis) that helps remove the wastes while preserving water and salts, or removing wastes through fluid introduced into the abdomen (peritoneal dialysis). Dialysis is required several times every week for the rest of the person’s life.
  • Kidney transplant – a healthy donor kidney, obtained either from someone who has died or from a relative or friend, replaces the function of the diseased kidneys.
When diagnosed early, it may be possible to stop diabetic kidney disease and fix the damage. If the disease continues, however, the damage may not be reversible.It is critical to keep blood sugar as well controlled as possible. This not only helps the kidneys, but decreases the risk of other serious problems that can come from diabetes, such as blindness, heart attack and damage to the blood vessels and nerves.Once kidneys fail, dialysis is necessary. The person must choose whether to continue with dialysis or to get a kidney transplant.
For any queries regarding the procedure and treatment facilities,email us at .Read about:Bariatric surgery


Bariatric surgery

Bariatrics is a branch of medicine that deals with the control and treatment of obesity and related diseases.Bariatric surgery includes a variety of procedures performed on obese people.The basic principle of bariatric surgery is to restrict food intake and decrease the absorption of food in the stomach and intestines.Evidence suggests that bariatric surgery may lower death rates for patients with severe obesity, especially when coupled with healthy eating and lifestyle changes after surgery.23.March6Bariatric

Principle of Bariatric surgery

Obesity is defined as having a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or more. Classes 2 (BMI 30-40)and 3 BMI(40 and more), also known as severe obesity, are often hard to treat with diet and exercise alone.Bariatric surgery works by alter or interrupt the digestion process so that food is not broken down and absorbed in the usual way. A reduction in the amount of nutrients and calories absorbed enables patients to lose weight and decrease their risk for obesity-related health risks or disorders.Some types of bariatric surgeries make stomach smaller, allowing  to eat and drink less at one time . Other bariatric surgeries also change your small intestine.
Bariatric surgery also may be an option if you have serious health problems, such as type 2 diabetes or sleep apnea, related to obesity. Bariatric surgery can improve many of the medical conditions linked to obesity, especially type 2 diabetes.

Types of Bariatric surgery

Most weight loss surgeries today are performed using minimally invasive techniques or laparoscopic surgery.The most common bariatric surgery procedures are gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, adjustable gastric band, and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch.

Gastric bypass
The Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass – often called gastric bypass – is considered the ‘gold standard’ of weight loss surgery.It is done by stapling your stomach which creates a small pouch in the upper section. The staples make your stomach much smaller, so you eat less and feel full sooner.The procedure also involves cutting small intestine and atatching the lower part of it directly to the small stomach pouch. Food then bypasses most of the stomach and the upper part of your small intestine so your body absorbs fewer calories.

Sleeve gastrectomy
The Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy – often called the sleeve – is performed by removing approximately 80 percent of the stomach. The remaining stomach is a tubular pouch (banana shaped section) that is closed with staples. Like gastric band surgery, this surgery reduces the amount of food that can fit in your stomach, making you feel full sooner.

Adjustable gastric band
The Adjustable Gastric Band – often called the band – involves an inflatable band that is placed around the upper portion of the stomach, creating a small stomach pouch above the band, and the rest of the stomach below the band.The band has a circular balloon inside that is filled with salt solution. The surgeon can adjust the size of the opening from the pouch to the rest of your stomach by injecting or removing the solution through a small device called a port placed under your skin.

Biliopancreatic diversion
The Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch – abbreviated as BPD/DS – is a procedure with two components. First, a smaller, tubular stomach pouch is created by removing a portion of the stomach, very similar to the sleeve gastrectomy. Next, a large portion of the small intestine is bypassed.This type of surgery allows you to lose more weight than the other three.

Candidates for bariatric surgery

For adults who have

  • a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or more, OR
  • a BMI of 35 or more with a serious health problem linked to obesity, such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, or sleep apnea
  • a BMI of 30 or more with a serious health problem linked to obesity, for the gastric band only

For teens who have gone through puberty  and reached their adult height, and have

  • a BMI of 35 or more with serious obesity-related health problems, such as type 2 diabetes or severe sleep apnea, OR
  • a BMI of 40 or more with less severe health problems, such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol

Be it adults or teens,anyone who wants to undergo weight-loss surgery should be prepared for the lifestyle changes they will need to make after the surgery.

For any queries regarding the procedure and treatment facilities,email us at 

Read about:MVT Business app

MVT Business App;finger tip access to medical tourism

Global Treatment services Pvt Ltd has been a front runner in medical value tourism for several years.It has brought about several groundbreaking developments in the industry.Latest addition to its long list of innovation is the MVT Business App.The application facilitates the complete medical value tourism workflow at the ease of accessing your mobile phone.The app is a new concept and first of its kind it in the industry. MVT app enables tourist operator, medical tourism facilitator & doctors to connect and offer medical tourism service through us without any hassles.The winning feature of the app is that it can be used to avail services from any country and in any speciality.MVTapp

Application details

It is a light weight application which does not eat into your phone memory.It comes with a downloadable size of only  a few megabytes.The interface is very user friendly designed to swiftly take you through the complete process.The data input required is also only essential details and the remaining is taken care by the background processes.The application also include features to store and track patient,insurance and process details along with various useful components.
On creation of query which is the primary step,it reaches the respective hospitals.The app supports downloading visa invitation letter and travel itinerary.Also, the app enables the user to upload passport and ticket copy through the upload link.There is also an option of sending ticket copy directly to the hospitals.

The application can be downloaded from Play Store(android ).

Download the MVT Business app for Android here

Process flow

The main tabs in the workflow are -Query Management,Patient and Payment and Insurance module.

Query Management
  • The MVT app enables the first step in the process flow, namely creating a query
  • During query creation, user can choose preferred country, city, speciality desired
  • The app gives an option of choosing multiple specialities and multiple cities too
  • After registering these choices, the user is given the option of choosing one or more internationally accredited hospitals based on the user preferences.
  • The user has to provide minimum details like medical reports of the patient
  • Query automatically reaches the respective hospitals
  • The generated query can be viewed in the query list with a unique reference number
  • The app also provides the user to download treatment proposal, on clicking the query.
 Once the itinerary is generated, it can be viewed in patient list and by selecting the patientuser is able to get daily update and medical details of the patient.
Payment icon gives the complete information about the patient bill and commission details, payment status, payment reference number  and also provides an option to raise invoice to the company.

Insurance module

The application facilitates claiming insurance by involving insurance companies.This module works similar to the general module in query management and patient.But the third tab is ‘Bill details’ instead of payment.Using this tab,insurance  companies can access all bill details of the patient.The application supports complete client settlement requirements including discharge summary using this tab.
MVT app provides smooth and transparent process flow to the medical tourism business partners.Its is the one stop app for all you need to manage the medical tourism process.
For any assistance and queries,kindly email us at

Understanding Cancer

The very word ‘Cancer’ is dreaded.A cancer diagnosis makes most of the people feel that life has gone out of control.Surely, it is normal to be afraid of the unknown. Uncertainty can make you feel afraid at first. Anxiety and angriness follows. Some people become irritated and frustrated with themselves.Once people start understanding cancer clearly and in depth,they can take charge.They start accepting that they have cancer and they often feel a sense of hope. Surely,there are many reasons to feel hopeful. Millions of cancer patients have survived. Living with cancer and beyond it have become possible more than before. So, let’s dive into cancer basics.21.March2


Cancer start

Cancer is caused by uncontrolled division of abnormal cells.Usually,we have right number of cells in our body.This is maintained by the cells through control signals produced in them.Cells may start to grow or multiply if these signals go faulty.The cells multiply rigorously to form a tumor where the cancer starts.
The instructions are generated by thousands of genes inside the cell nuclei.Normally genes make sure that cells grow and reproduce in an orderly and controlled way. Sometimes a change happens in the genes when a cell divides. This is a mutation.Mutation means that abnormal proteins may be produced in the cells that work differently to normal triggering cells to divide more and more. And once cells start growing too fast, they are more likely to pick up further mutations and less likely to be able to repair the damaged genes.

 Cancer growth

A tumour may contain millions of cancer cells.Cancer cells can break through basement membrane,the membrane which keeps the cells of every body tissues inside.Once this happens, the cancer is called invasive. As a tumour gets bigger, it takes up more space in the body. The cancer can then cause pressure on surrounding structures. It can also grow into body structures nearby. This is called local invasion. A cancer may grow out in a random direction from the place where it started. Cancer cells can move about more easily than normal cells. So it seems likely that one of the ways that cancers spread through nearby tissues is by the cells directly moving.

Tumours  can be benign or cancerous (malignant).

Benign tumours

Benign tumours are made up of cells that are quite similar to normal cells.They usually grow quite slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body.They will  cause a problem only in some cases such as when theygrow very large and press on other body organs,become painful or release hormones that affect how the body works and take up space inside the skull (such as a brain tumour)

Malignant tumours

They are made up of cancer cells. They:

  • usually grow faster than benign tumours
  • spread into surrounding tissues and cause damage
  • may spread to other parts of the body in the bloodstream or through the lymph system to form secondary tumours. This is called metastasis

Cancer spread

The place where a cancer starts in the body is called the primary cancer or primary site. Cells from the primary site may break away and spread to other parts of the body. These escaped cells can then grow and form other tumours, which are known as secondary cancers or metastases.
Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. There they can start to grow into new tumours. Cancers are named according to where they first started developing. For example, if you have bowel cancer that has spread to the liver, it’s called bowel cancer with liver metastases or secondaries. It is not called liver cancer. This is because the cancerous cells in the liver are actually bowel cells. They are not liver cells that have become cancerous.

Cancer groups

Cancers are divided into groups according to the type of cell they start from. They include

  • Carcinomas – cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs.
  • Lymphomas – cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system
  • Leukaemias – cancer that starts in blood forming tissue such as the bone marrow
  • Brain tumours and spinal cord cancer – central nervous system cancers
  • Sarcomas – cancer that begins in the connective or supportive tissues such as bone, cartilage, fat, muscle or blood vessels

Cancer staging and grading

Staging is a way of describing the size of a cancer and how far it has grown. When doctors first diagnose a cancer, they carry out tests to check how big the cancer is and whether it has spread into surrounding tissues.Cancer staging may sometimes include the grading of the cancer. Tumour grade describes a tumour in terms of how abnormal the tumour cells are when compared to normal cells.

Common staging systems are TNM system and number system.Number staging systems usually use the TNM system to divide cancers into stageswhich is the most commonly communicated system to the patients

Stage 1 –  usually means that a cancer is relatively small and contained within the organ it started in
Stage 2 – usually means that the tumour is larger than in stage 1, but the cancer has not started to spread into the surrounding tissues.
Stage 3 – usually means the cancer is larger. It may have started to spread into surrounding tissues and there are cancer cells in the lymph nodes in the area
Stage 4 – means the cancer has spread from where it started to another body organ. This is also called secondary or metastatic cancer

Generally the grading is as follows.

Grade 1 – the cancer cells look very similar to normal cells and are growing slowly
Grade 2 – the cells don’t look like normal cells and are growing more quickly than normal
Grade 3 – the cancer cells look very abnormal and are growing quickly

Is Cancer genetic?

Most cancers start due to gene changes that happen over a person’s lifetime. More rarely cancers start due to inherited faulty genes passed down in families.

For more information and treatment facilities,email us at 

Read about:Restorartive and cosmetic dentistry

Restorative and cosmetic dentistry

Who would not want a perfect smile in your selfie!Nowadays, there are several options for repairing, worn, decayed, damaged or missing teeth in  restorative dentistry. In addition to fixing these major issues , cosmetic measures can be taken then to put the finishing touches on a new smile.20.feb29dent

Pneumonia in children

Pneumonia will kill nearly 11 million children under five by 2030, experts warn based on an analysis conducted by Johns Hopkins University .Pneumonia is the biggest infectious killer of infants worldwide.More than 880,000 children , mainly aged less than two years old , died from pneumonia in 2016 alone.It is a severe lung infection which can be easily prevented with adequate measures.19.feb28Pneumonia


What is pneumonia?

Pneumonia is a serious infection of lungs in which the tiny air sacs, or alveoli , and terminal air spaces gets filled with pus and other fluids making it difficult for oxygen to reach the blood stream.It is more common in children less than  5 years old.The inflamamtion may be caused by bacteria, viruses,fungi or chemical irritants.The infectious agents are introduced into the lungs through blood or inhalation. There are two variants of pneumonia.

Lobar pneumonia:This affects one or more sections (lobes) of the lungs.

Bronchial pneumonia:This affects patches throughout both lungs.

Why children?

  • Unhealthy children with a compromised immune system has weak defenses.
  • Children who suffer from malnutrion, particularly inadequate zinc intake and lack of exclusive breastfeeding have a higher risk of developing pneumonia.
  • Other risk factors include:
    • Being born premature
    • Having asthma or genetic disorder such as sickle-cell disease
    • Having heart defects such as ventricular septal defect (VSD), atrial septal defect (ASD) or patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
  • Several environmental factors such as overcrowding homes and exposure to parental smoke increases a child’s susceptibility to pneumonia and its complications

Causes and symptoms

Pneumonia begins after an infection of the nose and throat.The sypmtoms start after 2-3 days of a cold/sore throat.It then move downwards to the lungs.Fluid, white blood cells, and debris start to accumulate in the air spaces of the lungs and block gaseous exchange .
Pneumonia is caused by a variety of germs -viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. The length of time between exposure to the germ and when someone starts feeling sick varies, depending on which virus or bacteria is causing the pneumonia.Some symptoms give important clues about which germ is causing the pneumonia.
Viral pneumonia :Most cases, though, are caused by viruses. These include adenoviruses, rhinovirus,influenza virus (flu), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and parainfluenza virus.Early symptoms of viral pneumonia are the same as those of bacterial pneumonia.
Bacterial pneumonia :This is caused by various bacteria. The streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common bacterium that causes bacterial pneumonia.Many other bacteria may cause bacterial pneumonia including Group B streptococcus,Staphylococcus aureus,Group A streptococcus.
Mycoplasma pneumonia :This presents slightly different symptoms than other types of pneumonia. They generally cause a mild, widespread pneumonia that affects all age groups.Symptoms usually do not start with a cold, and may include fever and cough are the first to develop,cough that is persistent and may last three to four weeks and a severe cough that may produce some mucus.
Other less common pneumonias may be caused by the inhaling of food, liquid, gases or dust, or by fungi.

Sometimes a child’s only sign may be rapid breathing and often when pneumonia exist in the lower part of the lungs, no breathing problems may be present but rather fever, abdominal pain or vomiting.If pneumonia is caused by bacteria, the infected child becomes sick relative quickly and is prone to developing high fever and rapid breathing.If pneumonia is caused by viruses, symptoms may appear gradually and less severe than the bacterial pneumonia .Parents should be aware of the following signs and symptoms:

  • Nostril flaring
  • Sternal retraction
  • Increased breath rate
    • > 60 breaths/min for newborns up to 2 months
    • > 50 breaths/min for 2 months to 12 months
    • > 40 breaths/min for a child older than 1 years of age

Four Stages

Pneumonia has four stages, namely consolidation, red hepatization, grey hepatization and resolution.
The first stage called Consolidation, which occurs within 24 hours of infection,  is characterized by coughing and deep breathing. Many bacteria and few neutrophils are present.Cellular exudates containing neutrophils, lymphocytes and fibrin replaces the alveolar air.Capillaries in the surrounding alveolar walls become congested.The infections spreads to the lung roots (hilum) and lung membranes(pleura) rapidly.
The stage of Red hepatization , so called because of its similarity to the consistency of liver, is characterized by the presence of many erythrocytes, neutrophils, desquamated epithelial cells, and fibrin within the alveoli.It occurs 2-3 days after consolidation.Alveolar capillaries are engorged with blood.
In the stage of Grey Hepatization (2-3 d fter red hepatization), the lung is gray-brown to yellow because of fibrinopurulent exudate, disintegration of RBCs, and hemosiderin. The final stage of resolution is characterized by resorption and restoration of the pulmonary architecture.


Sometimes a thorough physical examination is enough for the doctor to make pneumonia diagnosis.Folowing tests may be used to for further confirmation

  • Chest X-ray. A diagnostic test which uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film.
  • Blood tests. Blood count for evidence of infection,arterial blood gas to analyze the amount of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the blood.
  • Sputum culture. A diagnostic test performed on the sputum to determine if an infection is present.
  • Pulse oximetry:Used to measure the amount of oxygen in blood
  • Chest CT scan:  To take images of the structures in the chest
  • Bronchoscopy. A procedure used to look inside the airways of the lungs
  • Pleural fluid culture. A culture of fluid sample taken from the pleural space (space between the lungs and chest wall) to identify the bacteria that cause pneumonia


Specific treatment for pneumonia will be determined by your child’s doctor based on child’s age, overall health, and medical history,extent of the condition,cause of the condition,your child’s tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies,expectations for the course of the condition.

Treatment may include antibiotics for bacterial and mycoplasma pneumonia. There is no clearly effective treatment for viral pneumonia, which usually resolves on its own.Treatment will vary depending on how bad the symptoms are, and what the cause of the infection is.Other treatment may include appropriate diet,increased fluid intake,cool mist humidifier in the child’s room,acetaminophen and medication for cough.

For severe breathing problems, treatment may include

  • Intravenous (IV) or oral antibiotics,Intravenous (IV) fluids
  • Oxygen therapy
  • Breathing treatments
  • Analgesic administration
  • Cough suppressant medication


There is a pneumococcal vaccine to protect from a common form of bacterial pneumonia. Children younger than age 5 and adults ages 65 and older should get this shot.The pneumococcal shot is also recommended for all children and adults who are at increased risk of pneumococcal disease due to other health conditions.Kids should receive  immunisation against Haemophilus Influenzae and Pertussis at  2 months of age.

For any queries regarding  treatment facilities,email us at 

Read about:Frozen embryo transfer


Frozen embryo transfer

Emma Wren Gibson, frozen as an embryo in 1992, was born in 2017, more than 25 years later.Frozen embryo transfer is one of the procedures in invitro fertilisation(IVF).IVF is one assistive reproductive technology(ART) used to establish pregnancy.It involves retrieving eggs from a woman’s ovaries and fertilizing them with sperm in the laboratory. This fertilized egg  known as an embryo can then be frozen for storage or transferred to a woman’s uterus. Emmas’s is the longest an embryo is known to have been frozen before being born as baby.18.feb27FrozenEmbryoTransfer


ART procedures and IVF

IVF is used in women experiencing difficulty to conceive.This may include male or female genetic defects,abnormal sperm production in male,ovulation problems in female among many.Major ARTs are In vitro fertilization (IVF),Intracystoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI),Gamete intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT),Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer (ZIFT) and Tubal Embryo Transfer (TET).Most of these techniques relies on embryo transfer.
In Vitro Fertilisation involves uniting the ovum with the spermatozoon in vitro in order to obtain fertilised embryos for transfer to the mother’s uterus.First step to IVF is ovarian stimulation.Ovarian stimulation consists of the administration of daily injections which cause the ovaries, instead of producing a single ovum which is what they do naturally each month, to produce more oocytes so that a larger number of embryos can be obtained.
Multiple eggs are desired because some eggs will not develop or fertilize after retrieval.Eggs are retrieved through a minor surgical procedure that uses ultrasound imaging to guide a hollow needle through the pelvic cavity to remove the eggs. Medication is provided to reduce and remove potential discomfort.The male is asked to produce a sample of sperm, which is prepared for combining with the eggs.In a process called insemination, the sperm and eggs are mixed together and stored in a laboratory dish to encourage fertilization.The eggs are monitored to confirm that fertilization and cell division are taking place. Once this occurs, the fertilized eggs are considered embryos.
The embryos are usually transferred into the woman’s uterus three to five days following egg retrieval and fertilization. A catheter or small tube is inserted into the uterus to transfer the embryos.If the procedure is successful, implantation typically occurs around six to ten days following egg retrieval.

Frozen Embryo Transfer

A frozen embryo transfer (FET) is a cycle where a frozen embryo from an earlier cycle is thawed and transferred back into a woman’s uterus. This means that woman has an egg or embryo ready  for assistive reproduction procedure.She does not have to undergo a cycle of hormone stimulation and egg collection. Frozen embryo cycles can be undertaken on natural cycles  or ovulation stimulation.
As mentioned earlier, during an IVF cycles more than one embryo may be created.But it is recommended to transfer only one and freeze others. This is due to the serious risks associated with multiple pregnancies if more than one embryo is transferred at a time.Once the embryo transfer has been made,remaining good quality embryos are vitrified so that they can be used in a later IVF cycles.
Embryo freezing gives you more chances for a pregnancy . If pregnancy is not achieved  from the first transfer , we can transfer a frozen embryo during a frozen embryo transfer cycle.
This cuts down on the amount of time that is needed for each ART cycle. The quality of eggs deteriorates with age, leading to the possibility of having a more difficult time conceiving. The more quality of eggs, the better the chance that they will be of high enough quality to result in pregnancy. FET offers the patient the chance to use more quality possible eggs as this is vitrified during earlier ovulation cycles.

Fertility Preservation

The biggest benefit of FET is fertility preservation.There can be cases where some have a serious illness such as cancer that will potentially risk damage to your eggs or sperm from chemotherapy, radiotherapy or other treatments, including surgery.This can affect the fertility in future. FET can also help those people who are not in a position to have a babies right now but would want later and also those who would like the opportunity to start a family beyond the age at which fertility naturally declines.
Fertility preservation options for women include egg freezing, embryo freezing and ovarian tissue freezing.

Embryo freezing is used when there is partner or donor .Frozen embryos can be stored for many years.

Egg freezing is a method of storing a woman’s unfertilised eggs. To obtain eggs for freezing, a woman would usually have hormonal stimulation for 10 – 12 days. Frozen eggs may be stored for many years without significant deterioration. When the woman is ready to use her eggs, they are warmed, and then fertilised with sperm.

Ovarian tissue freezing involves removing a small piece of ovarian tissue from one ovary, cutting it into tiny slices and then freezing it. Later, when you are ready to try to conceive, the ovarian tissue slices are grafted back into your pelvis. Around nine months later, the grafted ovarian tissue can start to produce reproductive hormones and follicular development. Pregnancy may be achieved either with ovarian stimulation and IVF, or perhaps even naturally. Moaza Al Matrooshi was born with a serious blood disorder.By the age of nine ,she needed chemotherapy treatment for the disorder. She is  the first to give birth after having her fertility restored using ovarian tissue frozen before the onset of puberty.She delivered a healthy baby boy.

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Read about:LASIK or Laser eye surgery


LASIK or Laser eye surgey

As the saying goes “The eyes are the windows to the soul”.This expression conveys that eyes reflect what a person really is inside. However, I think it can be perceived in a different sense.The eyes provide vision which soothes the soul.Feels inappropriate?Anyways,you would agree with me on that ‘one should have clear vision to connect with the world around us’.Here comes the importance of correcting eye treatments. LASIK is a surgical procedure intended to correct a person’s vision and to reduce his dependency on glasses or contact lenses.17.feb26LASIK

Understanding LASIK

The cornea is a part of the eye that helps focus light to create an image on the retina.When the shape of the cornea and the eye are not perfect,the image on the retina is out-of-focus or distorted. These imperfections in the focusing power of the eye are called refractive errors. There are three primary types of refractive errors: myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. Myopia is nearsightedness, hyperopia is farsightedness and astigmatism is a distortion of the image on the retina caused by irregularities in the cornea or lens of the eye. LASIK is performed  to treat myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism.
Surgical procedures aimed at improving the focusing power of the eye are called refractive surgery. Like other types of refractive surgery, the LASIK procedure reshapes the cornea to enable light entering the eye to be properly focused onto the retina for clearer vision. LASIK stands for Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis and the  procedure  permanently changes the shape of the cornea.In LASIK surgery, precise and controlled removal of corneal tissue is done by a special laser reshaping the cornea and changing its focusing power.


The procedure starts with numbing of the eye with a few drops of topical anesthetic. An eyelid holder is placed between the eyelids to keep them open and prevent the patient from blinking. A suction ring placed on the eye lifts and flattens the cornea and helps keep the eye from moving.
Eye surgeon cuts a flap in the cornea,the clear covering of the front of the eye,using a mechanical surgical tool called microkeratome  or  a laser device called femtosecond laser. A hinge is left at one end of this flap using which the flap is folded back revealing the stroma, the middle section of the cornea. Excimer laser ,preprogrammed with the patient’s unique eye measurements,  is positioned above the patient’s eye .As patient looks at fixation light,excimer laser vaporize a portion of the stroma. This highly specialized laser uses a cool ultraviolet light beam to remove microscopic amounts of tissue from the cornea to reshape it so that it focuses light on the retina more accurately.The flap is then replaced, covering the area where the corneal tissue was removed and edges are smoothed.
For myopia, the cornea is flattened; with farsighted people, a steeper cornea is desired. Excimer lasers correct astigmatism by shaping an irregular cornea into a more normal shape.The flap sticks to the underlying corneal tissues in 2-5 minutes.Laser eye surgery does not require bandages or stitches ,it requires only topical anesthetic drops.The cornea is then allowed to heal naturally.
The ophthalmologist will prescribe eye drops to help the eye heal and relieve dryness.The patient can start doing his normal activities soon after a nap but it may take about six months after the surgery for the improvements in a person’s vision to fully stabilize and any side effects to go away.

Any risks and side effects?

LASIK is not for everyone.Eye doctors carefully test and evaluate to determine if patients are appropriate candidates for the surgery.Some of the reasons you may not qualify for the LASIK may be having changes in power of glasses in the past year,having certain medical conditions like diabetes ,having eye diseases like glaucoma,inflammation etc or having a previous eye surgery.People with dry eyes,large pupils and thin corneas also cannot undergo LASIK.
Benefits outweigh any risks if done on right patients.It can have mild and temporary side effects such as dry eyes,sensitivity to light,blurred vision  and other visual symptoms such as glare,halos etc.A small percentage of people may need a LASIK enhancement procedure.Some people may still need to wear glasses following laser vision correction but the power level typically will be much lower than before.
Laser eye surgery offers numerous benefits and can significantly improves the quality of life. Most people achieve 20/20 vision or better after the surgery.

For any queries regarding  treatment facilities,email us at 

Read about:Caesarean section



Cesarean Section

When it comes to delivery,cesarean section is often frowned upon.People shaming c-section says it is not ‘real birth’.They argue that it is an easy way out and you did not experience pain and the baby did not come out of you and on and on.Alas,vaginal birth is not the only thing a mother does for her baby.If  C-section babies are not really born,they would still be in their ‘trimesters’!!Let us see the details of c-section mode of delivery here to accept and appreciate it.16.feb25Csection

What is c-section

Cesarean section delivery is the surgical delivery of the baby by making incisions in the abdomen and uterus of the mother.Emergency c-section is performed when the labour has already begun but complications crop up.Health care team decides immediately that it is the safest option.Emergency c-section can be life saving for both mother and the baby.
When the mode of delivery is already chosen to be c-section before one goes into labour,then it is called planned or elective c-section.In most cases, c-sections are done for the safety of the child.Vaginal delivery poses danger when baby is lying in difficult position for labour or there are problems with the placenta such as a low lying placenta.

Reasons for planned Cesarean Section 

There are several reasons why cesarean sections may be planned prior to the labour or at the beginning of labour. As mentioned earlier,most of the reasons attribute to the safety of the baby and/or the mother.

Placenta Previa
This is where the placenta is near of covering the cervix. This blocks the pathway for a vaginal birth or would present a bleeding risk during labor.

Certain Fetal Positions
Your baby’s position in the uterus may mean that a vaginal birth is not possible, nor safe for them to be born. This can include: Transverse Lie, some breech positions, etc.

Higher Order Multiples
With every baby that you have in the uterus the risk of a cesarean birth increases. While there are births of twins and triplets vaginally, the more babies, the less likely a vaginal birth will be possible. This is many times due to odd positions in the uterus.

Genital herpes
If you have herpes occurring late in pregnancy and you have an active lesion on your genitals, you may be encouraged to have a cesarean rather than delivery vaginally. This is to prevent transmission to your baby.

You have pregnancy-related high blood pressure

Certain Fetal Conditions
Your baby isn’t getting enough oxygen and nutrients – sometimes this may mean the baby needs to be delivered immediately

Other conditions
Your labour isn’t progressing or there’s excessive vaginal bleeding,diseases that may make vaginal birth difficult like pulmonary or coronary disease of the mother,HIV positive with a high viral load at time of birth.Previous invasive uterine surgery, including a previous classical cesarean incision

Some mothers may choose planned c-section if they feel they cant cope with the pain involved in a vaginal birth especially if they had had a difficult vaginal delivery with their last baby.Also for some mothers,it may have caused severe postpartum depression.You never know what she goes through physically and emotionally.So ,there is no reason in shaming mothers going ahead with elective c-section.

C section Sugery

Most caesareans are carried out under spinal or epidural anaesthetic. Both types of anaesthetic are given as an injection in your spine that numbs the lower part of your body. This mean you’ll be awake.You will either lie on your side or sit leaning forward, curving your back, while the anaesthetist inserts a very fine needle into your spine.Occasionally a general anaesthetic, where you’re asleep, may be used, particularly if the baby needs to be delivered more quickly.This means you will be asleep for the operation

Before the procedure:You will be given

  • fluids through a needle in your arm (a drip), to stop you getting dehydrated and to reduce the risk of low blood pressure during the operation
  • anti-sickness medicine to stop you feeling or being sick
  • a small tube (catheter) into your bladder to drain urine – this will stay in place for at least 12 hours and until you feel able to walk to the toilet.

During the procedure:

  • a screen is placed across your body so that what’s being done is not seen.
  • a cut about 10-20cm long will usually be made across your lower tummy and womb so your baby can be may feel some tugging and pulling during the procedure
  •  Baby is then lifted out.

The whole operation normally takes about 40-50 minutes.

After the procedure:

  • regular checks to make sure the anaesthetic is wearing off , your breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, wound dressing and pain relief for the first few hours
  • regular checks on the amount of vaginal bleeding
  • a catheter to drain urine from your bladder
  • compression stockings to reduce your risk of blood clots
  • a needle in your arm (drip) to give you fluids until you’re eating and drinking again


C section is a major surgery meaning it risks associated with it like any other surgery.Moms are at greater risk during c section than vaginal birth.Recovery takes more time than normal delivery. Most women experience some discomfort for the first few days after a caesarean, and for some women the pain can last several weeks.The wound in your tummy will eventually form a scar.Regular pain killers are advised to control pain and bleeding.Once the anaesthetic has worn off, you’ll be able to stand up and do short walks.It’s important to move around soon after your c-section to reduce the risk of blood clot.

Benefits far outweigh any disadvanatges.No reasons for shaming mothers!

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Read about:Autism