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The description of varicose veins as a clinical entity can be traced back as early as the fifth century BC. Forefathers of medicine including Hippocrates and Galen described the disease and treatment modalities, which are still used today. Throughout the centuries, surgical treatments have evolved from large, open surgeries to minimally invasive approaches. Varicose veins represent a significant clinical problem and are not just a “cosmetic” issue because of their unsightly nature. The problem arises from the fact that varicose veins actually represent underlying chronic venous insufficiency with ensuing venous hypertension. This venous hypertension leads to a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from symptoms to cutaneous findings like varicose veins, reticular veins, telangiectasias, swelling, skin discoloration, and ulcerations.
When veins become abnormally thick, full of twists and turns, or enlarged, they are called varicose veins. Generally, the veins in the legs and thighs have a tendency to become varicosed.
In India, the incidence of varicose veins is reportedly less than in the Western countries. This could be genuinely less or underreported as culturally the society does not permit exposure of legs and therefore it may not be bothering many people.
Surgical removal or obliteration of varicose veins is often for cosmetic reasons alone. Noncosmetic indications include symptomatic varicosities (e.g., pain, fatigability, heaviness, recurrent superficial thrombophlebitis, bleeding), or for the treatment of venous hypertension after skin or subcutaneous tissue changes, such as lipodermatosclerosis, atrophie blanche, ulceration, or hyperpigmentation, have developed.
Conservative treatment with stockings and external compression is an acceptable alternative to surgery, but worsening cutaneous findings or symptoms despite these measure usually warrant intervention. Nonetheless, a patient’s desire for surgical management over conservative treatment or for cosmetic purposes alone are both reasonable relative indications for surgery.
Trendelenburg test: This physical examination technique distinguish patients with reflux at the SFJ from those with incompetent deep venous valves. The leg is elevated until the congested superficial veins have all collapsed. Direct pressure is used to occlude the GSV just below the SFJ. The patient stands with the occlusion still in place. If the distal superficial varicosities remains empty or fills very slowly, the
principal entry point of high pressure into the superficial system is at the SFJ. Rapid filling despite manual occlusion means that some other reflux pathway is involved.
Doppler auscultation: A Doppler transducer is positioned along the axis of a vein with the probe at an angle of 45° to the skin. When the distal vein is compressed, audible forward flow exists. If the valves are competent, no audible backward flow is heard with the release of compression. If the valves are incompetent, an audible backflow exists. These compression-decompression maneuvers are repeated while gradually ascending the limb to a level at which the reflux can no longer be appreciated.
Venous refilling time (VRT): This is a physiologic test, again using plethysmography. The VRT is the time necessary for the lower leg to become infused with blood after the calf-muscle pump has emptied the lower leg as thoroughly as possible. In healthy subjects, venous refilling is greater than 120 seconds. In patients with mild and asymptomatic venous insufficiency, VRT is between 40 and 120 seconds. In patients with significant venous insufficiency, VRT is abnormally fast at 20-40 seconds. Such patients often complain of nocturnal leg cramps, restless legs, leg soreness, burning leg pain, and premature leg fatigue. A VRT of less than 20 seconds is markedly abnormal, and is nearly always symptomatic. If the VRT is less than 10 seconds, venous ulcerations are likely.
Duplex US with color-flow imaging (sometimes called triplex ultrasound): This is a special type of 2-dimensional ultrasound that uses Doppler-flow information to add color for blood flow in the image. Vessels in the blood are colored red for flow in one direction and blue for flow in the other, with a graduated color scale to reflect the speed of the flow. Venous valvular reflux is defined as regurgitant flow with Valsalva that lasts great than 2 seconds.
 Haemogram
 Blood sugar
 Serum creatinine
 Bleeding time, clotting time and prothrombin time
 Xray chest
 Doppler of lower limb venous system to rule out any DVT
The greater saphenous vein (GSV) originates on the medial foot as part of the venous arch and receives tributaries from deep veins of the foot as it courses upward along the anterior aspect of the medial malleolus. From the ankle, the GSV continues along the anteromedial aspect of the calf to the knee and into the thigh, where it is found more medially. From the upper calf to the groin, the GSV is usually contained within an envelope of thin fascia. Visualization of this fascial envelope is an important way of identifying the GSV with duplex ultrasound. This fascial envelope often prevents the GSV from becoming significantly dilated, even when large volumes of reflux pass along its entire length. A normal GSV is typically 3-4 mm in diameter in the mid thigh.
Along its course, a variable number of named perforating veins may connect the GSV to the deep system at the femoral, posterior tibial, gastrocnemius, and soleal veins. The Cockett perforators, between the ankle and the knee, are a special group of perforating veins. Rather than directly connecting the superficial to deep venous systems, they connect the subfascial deep system with the posterior arch vein, which then empties into the GSV.
Besides perforating veins, the GSV has numerous superficial tributaries as it passes through the thigh. The most important of these are the posteromedial and anterolateral thigh veins, found at the level of the mid thigh, and the anterior and posterior accessory saphenous veins at the level of the canal of Hunter in the upper thigh, where a perforating vein often connects the GSV to the femoral vein. Just below the SFJ, the GSV receives several additional important tributary veins. These include the lateral and medial femoral cutaneous branches, the external circumflex iliac vein, the superficial epigastric vein, and the internal pudendal vein. These tributaries are frequently involved in the reflux that leads to the appearance of surface varicose veins on the lower thigh or upper calf.
The termination point of the GSV into the common femoral vein is called the saphenofemoral junction in the English literature but is known as the crosse (i.e., shepherd’s crook) in the French medical literature. The terminal valve of the GSV is located within the junction itself. In most cases, at least one additional subterminal valve is present within the first few centimeters of the GSV. Most patients have a single subterminal valve that can be readily identified approximately 1 cm distal to the junctional valve.
Reflux at or near the SFJ does not always come through the terminal valve of the GSV, nor does it always involve the entire trunk of the GSV. Reflux can enter the GSV below the subterminal valve or even immediately below the junction, passing through a failed subterminal valve to mimic true SFJ incompetence. Reflux can also pass directly into any of the other veins that join the GSV at that level, or it may pass a few centimeters along the GSV and then abandon the GSV for another branch vessel.
When a perforating vein is the primary site of reflux, dilatation of the vessel proceeds both proximally and distally. When dilatation reaches the most proximal portion of the vein, the saphenofemoral or saphenopopliteal junction is often recruited as a secondary point of reflux. Although most large varices are tributaries off of an incompetent GSV or SSV, failed perforating veins or connecting veins can also give rise to independent varices in the greater saphenous distribution without involving the saphenous system itself. Identifying the originating point and the primary pathway of reflux in the thigh is often difficult, which is why duplex ultrasound has become so helpful in varicose vein workup.
1. Safenofemoral ligation with long saphenous vein removal for long saphenous vein varicosities. Surgical removal of the GSV has evolved from large open incisions to less invasive stripping. Original methods of stripping used different devices and variations of techniques. The Mayo stripper was an extraluminal ring that cut the tributaries as it was passes along the vein. The Babcock device was an intraluminal stripper with an acorn-shaped head that pleated up the vein
as it pulled the vessel loose from its attachments. The Keller device was an internal wire used to pull the vein through itself, as is done today with perforation-invagination (PIN) strippers.
Currently, the technique of PIN stripping begins with a 2- to 3-cm incision made at the groin crease. The femoral vein and SFJ are exposed with dissection and all tributaries of the SFJ must be identified and flush-ligated to minimize the incidence of reflux recurrence.
After ligation and division of the junction, the stripping instrument (usually a stiff but flexible length of wire or plastic) is passed into the GSV at the groin and threaded through the incompetent vein distally to the level of the upper calf. The stripper is brought out through a small incision (5 mm or smaller) approximately 1 cm from the tibial tuberosity at the knee. An inverting head is attached to the stripper at the groin and is secured to the proximal end of the vein. The vessel is then inverted into itself, tearing away from each tributary and perforator as the stripper is pulled downward through the leg and out through the incision in the upper calf. If desired, a long epinephrine-soaked gauze or ligature may be secured to the stripper before invagination, allowing hemostatic packing to be pulled into place after stripping is complete.
An older technique of stripping to the ankle (rather than to just the knee) has fallen into disfavor because of a high incidence of complications, including damage to the saphenous nerve, which is closely associated with the vein below the knee
2. Subfacial ligation with below knee removal of long saphenous vein for below knee varicosities associated with incompetent perforators.
3. Removal of the short saphenous vein is complicated by variable local anatomy and risk of injury to the popliteal vein and peroneal nerve. The saphenopopliteal junction must be located by duplex examination before beginning the dissection, and adequate direct visualization of the junction is essential. After ligation and division of the junction, the stripping instrument (often a more rigid stripper that facilitates navigation) is passed downward into the distal calf, where it is brought out through a small incision (2-4 mm). The stripper is secured to the proximal end of the vein, which is invaginated into itself as it is pulled downward from knee to ankle and withdrawn from below.
4. Stab phlebectomy (or ambulatory phlebectomy)
Performed by Galen as early as the second century, this procedure came back into modern favor during the 1960s and has increased in popularity ever since. This procedure is extremely useful for the treatment of residual vein clusters after saphenectomy and for removal of nontruncal tributaries when the saphenous vein is competent. Ambulatory phlebectomy is a treatment for superficial varicose veins. The procedure involves the removal of the varicose veins through small 2–3 mm incisions in the skin overlying the veins. The procedure may be performed in hospital or outpatient settings. The procedure may be performed with tumescent local anesthesia, such as with lignocaine.
A microincision is made over the vessel using a tiny blade or a large needle, a phlebectomy hook is introduced into the microincision, and the vein is delivered through the incision. With traction, as long a segment as possible is pulled out of the body until the vein breaks or cannot be pulled any further. Another microincision is made and the process is begun again and repeated along the entire length of the vein to be extracted. Short segments of veins can be removed through tiny incisions without ligatures, and skin closure is not necessary.
1. Endovenous laser
2. Radiofrequency ablation
3. Sclerotherapy
4. Cutaneous electrodesiccation
5. Subfascial endoscopic perforating vein surgery
After treatment of large varicose veins by any method, a 30- to 40-mm Hg gradient compression stocking is applied and patients are instructed to maintain or increase their normal activity levels. Most practitioners also recommend the use of gradient compression stockings even after treatment of spider veins and smaller tributary veins.
Activity is particularly important after treatment by any technique because all modalities of treatment for varicose disease have the potential to increase the risk of DVT. Activity is a strong protective factor against venous stasis. Activity is so important that most venous specialists will not treat a patient who is unable to remain active following treatment.
A correct diagnosis of superficial venous insufficiency is essential. Veins should be treated only if they are incompetent and if a normal collateral pathway exits. Removal of a saphenous vein with a competent termination will not aid in the management of nontruncal tributary varices.
In the setting of deep system obstruction, varicosities are hemodynamically helpful because they provide a bypass pathway for venous return. Hemodynamically helpful varices must not be removed or sclerosed. Ablation of these varicosities will cause rapid onset of pain and swelling of the extremity, eventually followed by the development of new varicose bypass pathways.
The most annoying minor complications of any venous surgery are dysesthesias from injury to the sural nerve or the saphenous nerve. Subcutaneous hematoma is a common complication, regardless of treatment technique used. It is easily managed with warm compress, NSAIDS, or aspiration if necessary.
i) Surgeon: diagnosis & work up
Pre operative planning
Operative procedure
Post operative follow up
j) Anesthetist: PAC, anesthesia
 Dressing of the wound
 Pre & post operative care
 Pre op equipment and drugs to be checked and kept ready
 Assist anesthetist in the OT
 Assist the surgeon, positioning of the patient
Human Resources
Surgeon – 1
Medical Officer /
Assistant Surgeon – 1
Anesthetist – 1
Staff Nurse – 1
Technician – 1
Blood Sugar
S. Electrolytes
S. Creatinine
X-Ray – Chest
I.V. Fluids
Anesthetic drugs
OT Table & lights
Instrument trolley
General Surgery Set
Anesthetic Equipment
Nursing Orderly – 1
Sweeper – 1

Fistula in Ano- images, Definition and Treatment

When a patient presents with a discharging opening gin the perianal region, on e should suspect a fistula in ano
A fistula is an abnormal communication between two epithelial surfaces.
By definition a fistula in ano is a communication between the anal canal and skin by a tract which may be straight and simple or complex with ramifications or a horse shoe tract involving the right and / or left halves. The discharge may be pus, fecal matter, flatus or serosanguinous.
Fistula are classified as low or high
Based upon their relationship to the anal sphincter complex, anal fistulas are categorized into:
1. Intersphincteric
2. Trans sphincteric
3. Supra sphincteric
4. Extra sphincteric
Treatment options are based upon these classifications
Indian incidence is not documented
Crohn’s disease
Pilonidal sinus
Lymphogranuloma venereum
Granuloma inguinale
Perianal abcess
Adequate drainage of anorectal abscesses may prevent fistula formation
Predisposing causes
1. Crohn’s disease
2. Malignancy
3. Chlamydia
In the presence of a complex, recurrent, non healing fistula these should be suspected.
Surgical treatment alone offers permanent cure. So patients should be counseled for early surgey when it is a simple fistula so that it does not become complex.
Patients with anal fistula commonly present with complaints of
 Discharge from external or internal opening, the external opening may be single or multiple
 Pain
 Swelling
 Fever
The presentation may be acute when there is acute perianal sepsis
A chronic anal fistula presents with periodic exacerbation and pus discharging openings around the anus per rectal exam and proctoscopy should be done to visualize both the internal and external openings. This may be adequate for a straight low tract.
Fistulogram may be done when branching is suspected, in recurrent fistulae and when internal opening is not appreciable.
Examination under anesthesia
Probe test, caution may cause now internal opening
Injection technique is useful in delineating the tract
Biopsy when specific cause is anticipated
Barium enema – when co existing disease is suspected
Blood sugar – to r/o diabetes mellitus
Complete blood count
Urine r/m
X ray chest – to rule out TB
Simple low fistulae can be managed in a secondary hospital where a surgeon is available
Surgical options are dictated by the type of fistula. Aim is to drain the septic focus and remove the fistula with minimal injury to the sphincter complex
Combination of the above:
Fistulotomy (of superficial position), with seton division (of the cephalad position)
Staged procedures may be required in high anal fistulae
Fistula presenting as perianal abscess would require drainage, analgesics and antibiotics followed subsequently by a definitive procedure
Fistulotomy and curettage / Fistulectomy – low anal fistula
Trans sphincteric fistula that involve =<30 percent of sphincteric muscle – sphincteromy without risk of incontinence
High Trans sphincteric fistulas – seton placement
Complex/recurrent/high anal fistulae may need referral to a higher centre for adequate investigation and management. Colostomy and staged procedure may be required.
Co existing conditions like rectal cancers, Crohn’s disease, TB fistulae, HIV infection require referral
In patient
Clinical diagnosis as in situation 1
All investigations as in situation 1
Additional investigations:
MRI, MR Fistulogram in complex, high, trans sphincteric, supra and extrasphincteric fistulae
Colonoscopy – associated ulcerative colitis, carcinoma, TB etc
HIV test in suspected cases
Biopsy when multiple openings are present, malignancy or specific cause is suspected prothrombin time
HbA1C in cases of diabetes mellitus
TREATMENT: as in situation 1
Colostomy – when significant sphincter involvement is present, or non healing ulcer Multiple procedures – complex fistula with multiple tracts
Day Care – Low fistulae – subcutaneous / submucous fistula
All others – should be admitted
Clinical examination
Planning surgery
Post op care
Siting of colostomy when required, by stoma nurse
Care of stoma
Dressing of the wound
Pre & post operative care
Assisting during surgery
Pre op equipment and drugs to be checked and kept ready
Assist anesthetist in the OT
Assist the surgeon, positioning of the patient
Owen G, Keshava A, Stewart P, Patterson J, Chapuis P, Bokey E, Rickard M.
Plugs unplugged. Anal fistula plug: the Concorf experience.
ANZ J Surg. 2010 May, 80 (5):341-3
Department of Colorectal Surgery, Concord Repatriation General Hospital, Hospital Road, Concord, NSW 2139, Australia.
K.Rajgopal Shenoy, Manipal Manual of Surgery second edition; reprint 2009. CBS Publishers and Distributors (Pvt.) Ltd., India
Shackelford’s Surgery of the Alimentary Tract 6th Edition by Charles J. Yeo MD Saunders 2006 ISBN: 1416023577
Human Resources
Surgeon – 1
Medical Officer / Assistant Surgeon – 1
Staff Nurse – 1
Technician – 1
Nursing Orderly – 1
Sweeper – 1
Urine Analysis
Blood Sugar
I V Fluids
Anesthetic drugs
OT Table and lights
General surgery set
Pulse Oximeter
Anesthetic equipment
Consultant – 1
Resident – 1
Staff nurse – 1
Technician – 1
Nursing Orderly – 1
Sweeper – 1
Same as above +
X-Ray chest
Same as above + stoma bag
Same as above



Sir William Arbuthnot was one of the early proponents of the usefulness of total colectomies.
Colectomy is commonly performed for the treatment of colon cancer.

Colectomy implies the surgical resection of any extent of the large intestine (colon).
Based on the segment of colon removed colectomies are termed as
1. Right hemicolectomy.
2. Extended right hemicolectomy
3. Transverse colectomy
4. V resection
5. Left hemicolectomy
6. Extended left hemicolectomy
7. Sigmoidectomy
8. Proctosigmoidectomy
9. Total colectomy
10. Total proctocolectomy
11. Subtotal colectomy

INDIAN INCIDENCE: not documented
 Polyps
 Inflammatory bowel disease-ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease
 Tuberculous stricture of the large bowel with obstruction
 Vascular malformations with lower gastro intestinal bleeding
 Amoebiasis
In familiar situations like FAP & HNPCC early colectomy is advised.
It is important to understand the carcinogenesis in colorectal cancer & the associated molecular events.
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS also pay an important role, particularly dietary factors & estrogen replacement.
Association between hyperplastic polyposis & colorectal cancer & adenomas called sporadic MIS tumuors
Colorectal cancers: are Sporadic in 75% cases & Genetic in 25% (younger age at diagnosis)
Positive Familial history is present in 15%-20%.
HNPCC (5%)-80% risk
FAP(less than 1%)-100% risk of development of CRC – prophylactic total colectomy/proctocolectomy
Screening colonoscopy and polypectomy – reduces colon cancer mortality.
Situation 1
Clinical Diagnosis
Anatomical locations and clinical manifestations of colon cancer
Distribution %
Ascending / Caecum
Abdominal pain
Abdominal pain
Changing bowel habit
Abdominal pain
Low back pain
 Haemogram
 Colonoscopy – investigation of choice
 – Biopsy & HPE
– Brush cytology if biopsy is not possible
 X-ray abdomen – if patient presents with features of large bowel obstruction
 Double contrast barium enema :
– When colonoscopy is contra indicated or not available
– Findings – constant irregular filling defect
– Detects associated lesions
– Small ulcerative lesions can be diagnosed
 USG abdomen
 Endoluminal ultrasound – if available
 CECT – if available is used in large palpable abdominal masses
= To determine local invasion
 Urograms – when evidence of hydronephrosis on USG/ CT in left sided tumours
1. Pre op evaluation of staging, respectability, patient’s operative risks are mandatory.
2. Accurate localization of tumour – of particular importance.
a. Sometimes known cancer may not be apparent on serosal aspect.
b. Localization by tattooing during colonoscopy, Barium enema.
c. Pre op CT, USG assessment of iver metastasis should be done
Mechanical bowel preparation
Prophylactic antibiotics
Blood grouping and cross matching
Thromboembolism prophylaxis
Resection should follow
Standard oncological principles:
 Proximal ligation of primary arterial supply at its margins
 Adequate proximal & distal margins(5 cm) determined by area supplied by the primary feeder artery
 Appropriate lymphadenectomy – harvesting of minimum 12 nodes
 Extent of resection is an important prognostic factor (SAGES guidelines 2000)
 Any tumour not removed intraoperatively strongly influences prognosis & therapy
Ro – absence of residual tumour, margins free histologically
R1 – no gross residual tumour but margins histologically positive
R2 – residual gross disease remains unresected
T4 lesions are a complex group & should be considered separate from other T groups
Radial tumour free margins should be resected. Radial margin should be histologically free of disease for resection to be curative.
Specimen labeling, marking are important for a good pathological report
R1 & R2 resection – incomplete resection for cure affects curability though TNM stage remains same
In addition to radial, proximal & distal margins, circumferential margins should also be pathologically assessed. Positive margins are associated with increased rate of local and distal failure.
Disease free survival and mortality significantly related to margin involvement after TME
ADJUVANT Ro stage:
Adjuvant therapies require complete resection
A case is not Ro if it is
 Non enbloc resection
 Radial margins positive for disease
 Bowel margin positive for disease
 Residual lymph node disease present or
 Nx (incomplete staging)
Should be radical (up to the level of origin of primary feeding artery)
Apical nodes positive for disease may have prognostic significance in addition to number of positive lymph nodes
ENBLOC RESECTION of adherent tumours : En bloc removal of adjacent organs locally invaded by cancer colon can achieve survival rates similar to patients with tumour that do not invade an adjacent organ, provided negatgive resection margins are achieved.
Inadvertent full thickness perforation of rectum would probably classify tumour as T4 and resection as R1
Perforation at the site of cancer, as opposed to an area remote from the tumour has a greater impact on survival & local recurrence.
Inadvertent local perforation predisposes to local recurrence and warrants post-operative radiotherapy.
Adjuvant radiotherapy may be considered to decrease rates of local recurrence
Value inconclusive
Anatomical Resection of Colon Cancer
Tumour location
Vascular Ligation
Colon resection
Caecum, ascending colon
ileo-colic, right colic
Right hemicolectomy
ileotransverse colostomy
Hepatic flexure,
Proximal transverse colon
ileocolic right, middle colic
Extended right hemicolectomy with omentectomy
iIeodescending colostomy
Distal transverse colon splenic flexure
ileocolic right, middle or left branch of middle colic, left colic
Extended right hemicolectomy with omentectomy or Left hemicolectomy
ileosigmoid colostomy or Transverse sigmoid colostomy
Descending colon
Inferior mesenteric or left colic
Left hemicolectomy
Transverse colorectal anastamosis
Sigmoid colon
Inferior mesenteric or sigmoid
Left colectomy or Sigmoid resection
Transverse colorectal anastamosis or descending colorectal anastamosis
Colectomy may be performed by the
i) Conventional open technique
Patients suspected of colon cancer & biopsy proven should be referred to a higher centre for further evaluation and treatment when
1) Adequate surgical facilities are not available / surgeon does not have sufficient experience in colon cancer surgery.
2) Competent pathologist to report on malignant lesions as per standard oncological guidelines is not available.
3) For adjuvant / neo-adjuvant radio and chemo therapy
Patient requiring colectomy for biopsy proven cancer are best referred to a super specialty centre
In view of the need for multi modality treatment.
All investigations as in situation 1
 Spiral CT in elderly patients more than 80 years
 CT colonoscopy also called virtual colonoscopy – 6 mm polyps may be picked up effectively
 CEA – fetal glycoprotein
– Increased pre op CEA in node positive Ca – indication for chemotherapy
 MRI :
 PET : detection of metastasis
 SPECT – if single photon emission is studied, such as technetium or thallium
 FDG-PET – useful in evaluation of recurrent colorectal cancer
-Differentiates post op changes from recurrent / residual disease
-Useful diagnostic tool but prohibitive cost
 CT-PET – fusion tests provide the most powerful integrated images
-Using 131I, 111In, 99mTc bound to monoclonal antibodies, leucocytes & erythrocytes.
As outlined in situation 1.
Laparoscopic resection is gaining popularity. However it is not freely available & performed as per protocols.
1. Synchronous malignancies or polyps
Patients with synchronous malignancies should be considered for subtotal colectomy depending on the distance between lesions
Colonic cancer with multiple adenomatous polyps – subtotal colectomy
(Due to increased risk of metachronous lesion and to facilitate surveillance of the remaining colon)
Factors that influence the decision to perform prophylactic subtotal colectomy
-size of accompanying polyps
-compliance of patient
2. Cancer is a polyp
Complete endoscopic removal of polyp with cancer in situ – no further treatment
Histoplathology shows invasive carcinoma:
Ensure that endoscopic polypectomy was complete
Specimen was submitted with proper orientation to the pathologist for histopathology
Carcinoma at margin of resection requires formal resection
Carcinoma with free margins – a. thorough pathological review,
b. identification of adverse histological features
i. poor differentiation,
ii lymphatic or venous invasion
iii invasion into the stock of the polyp – formal
It is difficult to locate the previous polypectomy site during surgery
Even if polyp is not removed it may be soft and difficult to palpate through the colon wall
Endoscopic distance (from anal verge or dentate line) misleading
Polypectomy site should be videotaped for later review and marked with vital dye that can be seen serosally at the time of surgery
3. Obstructing Cancers- 2% of colorectal cancers
Partial obstruction – Gentle bowel preparation over several days-Elective surgery
Total obstruction
– Rt colon cancers – Rt Hemi colectomy – immediate ileocolostomy
– Lt colon cancers
1) Endoscopic decompression by laser passed beyond the obstructed
Segment – This allows mechanical preparation and elective resection.
– This is possible only when the narrowed lumen can be traversed by the endoscope.
– It is not possible when obstruction is complete
2) Primary resection and immediate anastamosis with on-table colonic
washout with or without proximal colostomy.
3) Primary resection with colostomy. Anastamosis at second stage.
4) Subtotal colectomy with primary anastamosis
5) Decompressive colostomy followed by formal colonic resection
4. Adjacent organ involvement- 10%
Locally advanced tumours are potentially curable with multi organ resection.-Do not necessarily
Portend a dismal prognosis.
-A non metastasizing variant of colon cancer grows to a large size without spreading to regional nodes
-Separation of adhesions adjacent to a malignancy can lead to dissemination of tumour cells.
-Enbloc resection of these tumours, depending on location can lead to five year survivals of 70%
Hepatic metastases – 10% at the time of exploration.
-Solitary metastasis amenable to –wedge resection with clear margins can be removed concomitantly.
-Formal hepatic lobectomy done as a second stage procedure.
5. Ovarian metastasis – 7% at the time of colon resection
Oophorectomy: at the time of colorectal surgery
i) Large ovarian metastasis (Krukenbergt’s tumour) which are symptomatic (prevents second surgery for the metastasis, benefit of preventing primary ovarian cancer)
ii) Direct ovarian involvement
iii) Post menopausal women – prophylactic oophorectomy
6. Inadvertent Perforation
-Predisposes to local recurrence
-Warrants post op radiotherapy
Follow up
Aim: Early detection of recurrence or metachronous lesion
Physical examination
Faecal occult blood
CBC } every 3 months-first 3 years
LFT every 6 months additional 2 years
Tumour markers (CEA) – monthly – 3 years, 3 monthly-next 2 years
Colonoscopy – first colonoscopy within 6-12 months of surgery, yearly-next 2 years, 2-3 yearly thereafter.
CT abdomen and pelvis – if primary loco regionally advanced
-LFT ↑
-CEA ↑
80-90% of recurrence of colon cancers occurs in the first two years.
All patients should be admitted when a colectomy is planned
c) Surgeon: diagnosis & work up
Pre operative planning
Operative procedure
Post operative follow up
d) Radiotherapist : radiotherapy – neoadjuvant & adjuvant
e) Medical oncologist : Chemotherapy
f) Anesthetist: PAC, anesthesia, post op ICU management
 Siting of colostomy when required by some nurse
 Care of stoma
 Dressing of the wound
 Pre & post operative care
 Pre op equipment and drugs to be checked and kept ready
 Assist anesthetist in the OT
 Assist the surgeon, positioning of the patient

Human Resources
Surgeon – 1
Medical Officer /
Assistant Surgeon – 1
Anesthetist – 1
Pathologist – 1
Staff Nurse – 1
Technician – 1
Nursing Orderly – 1
Urine Analysis
Blood Sugar
S. Electrolytes
X-Ray – Chest
I.V. Fluids
Anesthetic drugs
OT Table & lights
Instrument trolley
General Surgery Set
Anesthetic Equipment
Sweeper – 1
Stoma bags
Consultant – 1
Residents – 1
Anesthetist – 1
Pathologist – 1
Medical Oncologist – 1
Radiotherapist – 1
Staff Nurse – 2
Stoma therapist – 1
Technician – 1
Nursing Orderly – 1
Sweeper – 1
Same as above +
Coagulation Profile
CT Scan
Same as above
Same as above +
Laparoscopic Set
Harmonic Scalpel
Endo GI Staplers

Dr. V. Ramesh &
Dr Ajit Sinha
Department of Surgery
Safdarjung Hospital
New Delhi

CHOLECYSTECTOMY, Images, Treatments,


Cholecystectomy is one of the commonest elective surgical procedure performed in India. Most are performed to address symptoms related to biliary colic from cholelithiasis, to treat complications of gallstones (eg, acute cholecystitis, biliary pancreatitis), or as incidental cholecystectomies performed during other open abdominal procedures. Currently, most cholecystectomies are done using the laparoscopic technique in cities; however, the open technique is required in places where facilities or trained staff are not available.
Cholecystectomy implies the surgical resection the gall bladder.
In India, the incidence of gall stones is around six percent in the total population. It is 10 per cent in women and three per cent in men. In elderly people it may go up to 20 percent.
Asymptomatic patients
Cholecystectomy is not indicated in most patients with asymptomatic stones because only 2-3% of these patients go on to become symptomatic per year. To properly determine the indications for elective cholecystectomy, the risk of the operation (taking into account the age and comorbid factors of the individual patient) must be weighed against the risk of complications and death without operation.
The widespread use of diagnostic abdominal ultrasonography has led to the increasing detection of clinically unsuspected gallstones. This, in turn, has given rise to a great deal of controversy regarding the optimal management of asymptomatic (silent) gallstones.
Patients who are immunocompromised, are awaiting organ allotransplantation, or have sickle cell disease are at higher risk of developing complications and should be treated irrespective of the presence or absence of symptoms.
Additional reasons to consider prophylactic cholecystectomy include the following:
 Calculi >3 cm in diameter, particularly in individuals in geographical regions with a high prevalence of gallbladder cancer
 Chronically obliterated cystic duct
 Nonfunctioning gallbladder
 Calcified (porcelain) gallbladder
 Gallbladder polyp >10 mm or showing rapid increase in size

 Gallbladder trauma
 Anomalous junction of the pancreatic and biliary ducts
 Morbid obesity is associated with a high prevalence of cholecystopathy, and the risk of developing cholelithiasis is increased during rapid weight loss. Routine prophylactic cholecystectomy prior to gastric bypass (RYGB) is controversial, but cholecystectomy should clearly precede or be performed at the time of RYGB in patients with a history of gallbladder pathology.
Symptomatic gallstone disease
Biliary colic with sonographically identifiable stones is the most common indication for elective cholecystectomy.
Acute cholecystitis, when diagnosed within 72 hours from the onset of symptoms, can and usually should be treated by surgery. Once 72 hours pass after the onset of symptoms, inflammatory changes in the surrounding tissues are widely believed to render dissection planes more difficult. Interval cholecystectomy after 4-6 weeks or percutaneous cholecystostomy are other options.
Biliary dyskinesia should be considered in patients who present with biliary colic in the absence of gallstones, and a cholecystokinin–diisopropyl iminodiacetic acid (CCK-DISIDA) scanning should be obtained. The finding of a gallbladder ejection fraction <35% at 20 minutes is considered abnormal and constitutes another indication for cholecystectomy.
Complex gallbladder disease
Gallstone pancreatitis
Cholecystectomy can be safely performed during the same hospitalization after the clinical signs of mild to moderate biliary pancreatitis have resolved. Patients diagnosed with gallstone pancreatitis should first undergo imaging to rule out the presence of choledocholithiasis.
Cholecystectomy should be delayed in cases of acute moderate to severe biliary pancreatitis (5 Ranson criteria).
The following treatment options are available for patients found to have choledocholithiasis:
Preoperative ERCP with sphincterotomy
Postoperative ERCP with sphincterotomy
Laparoscopic intraoperative cholangiogram with laparoscopic common bile duct (CBD) exploration
Open CBD exploration and T-tube placement
Mirizzi syndrome
P.L. Mirizzi described an unusual presentation of gallstones that, when lodged in either the cystic duct or the Hartmann pouch of the gallbladder, externally compressed the common hepatic duct, causing symptoms of obstructive jaundice.

Although an initial trial of dissection may be performed by an experienced laparoscopic biliary surgeon, one must be prepared for conversion and for biliary reconstruction.
Endoscopic stone fragmentation at ERCP, with papillotomy and stenting, is a viable alternative to operative surgery to treat Mirizzi syndrome in the acute setting.[24 ]Subsequent cholecystectomy may be performed.[25 ]
Cholecystoduodenal fistula
Patients with cholecystoduodenal fistula leading to gallstone ileus should undergo exploratory laparotomy and removal of the stone, followed by exploration of the remainder of the gastrointestinal tract for additional stones. The fistula may be addressed at the time of the initial procedure but is probably better addressed at a second operation (3-4 wk postoperatively) after inflammation has subsided.[25 ]
Cholecystenteric fistula does not represent an absolute contraindication to laparoscopic surgery, although it does require careful visualization of the anatomy and good laparoscopic suturing skills.
Acalculous cholecystitis
A greater proportion of patients with acalculous cholecystitis are too ill to undergo surgery. In these situations, percutaneous cholecystostomy guided by CT or ultrasonography is advised. Ninety percent of these patients demonstrate clinical improvement. Once the patient has recovered, the cholecystostomy tube can be removed, usually at 6 weeks, without sequelae. Interval cholecystectomy is not necessary.[27 ]
Incidental gallbladder cancer
Gallbladder cancer may be an incidental finding at cholecystectomy, with an incidence ranging from 0.3-5.0%.
Uncertainty of diagnosis, uncertainty of the degree of tumor spread, or postoperative identification of cancer on pathological examination of a routine cholecystectomy specimen should engender early reoperation.
Before reoperation, distant metastases should be excluded by a detailed clinical examination including a per-rectal/per-vaginal examination, examination for supraclavicular lymph nodes, and CT/MRI of the chest and abdomen.
Special situations
Cholecystectomy is a safe and effective treatment for most children diagnosed with biliary disease (BD).
Cholecystectomy in safe in patients with Child class cirrhosis.
Diabetes mellitus
The presence of diabetes mellitus, in and of itself, does not confer sufficient risk to warrant prophylactic cholecystectomy in asymptomatic individuals.
However, consider that acute cholecystitis in a patient with diabetes is associated with a significantly higher frequency of infectious complications such as sepsis.
The treatment of biliary colic or uncomplicated cholecystitis in a pregnant patient is conservative management followed by elective cholecystectomy. Using antibiotics, analgesics, and antiemetics help most pregnant women avoid surgical intervention. Surgery is generally indicated for patients with recurrent acute cholecystitis who have failed maximal medical therapy.
Classically, the second trimester is considered the safest time for surgery. This is because of the findings of increased risk for spontaneous abortion and teratogenesis during the first trimester, and the increased risk for premature labor and difficulties with visualization in the third trimester.
Pregnancy was formerly considered to be an absolute contraindication to the laparoscopic approach because of concern for potential trocar injury to the uterus and the unknown effects of pneumoperitoneum to the fetal circulation. However, this has not been borne out in the literature, and cholecystectomy is now considered safe.
Recommendations for pregnant patients who undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy include placing them in the left lateral recumbent position to shift the weight of the gravid uterus off the vena cava and maintenance of insufflation pressures between 10 and 12 mm Hg. In addition, maternal PaCO 2 monitoring must be performed by measuring either arterial blood gases or end-tidal CO 2 , but arterial PaCO 2 may be more accurate.
Other recommendations include avoiding rapid changes in intraperitoneal pressures, avoiding rapid changes in patient position, and using open technique for the umbilical port placement.
Distance from medical centres
In India, another indication can be distance from a treating hospital as long travel that may be needed can lead to complications.
 Haemogram
 Liver Function Tests
 Blood sugar
 Serum creatinine
 Bleeding time, clotting time and prothrombin time
 Xray chest

 USG abdomen
 In patients with dilated common bile duct or raised liver functions, MRCP or ERCP may be indicated based on availability. Alternatively, an on table cholangiogram or CBD exploration may be done during surgery. Patient can be referred to another centre in case of non availability of expertise or experience.
Principles of surgery remain the same regardless of whether it is being done by open or laparoscopic technique.
 Safe access to abdomen.
 Clear definition of anatomy in the calots triangle showing either the continuity between cystic duct and gall bladder or junction between cytic duct and common bile duct.
 Avoiding diathermy close to common bile duct.
 Securing cystic artery safely and close to the gall bladder.
 Dissection from liver bed staying close to gall bladder.
 Early conversion to open procedure in case of a difficult laparoscopic surgery.
 Common bile duct stones if no facilities for management available.
 Suspected gall bladder cancer.
 Bile duct injury during surgery. Patient should be referred to a tertiary centre as soon as possible.
a) Surgeon: diagnosis & work up
Pre operative planning
Operative procedure
Post operative follow up

b) Anesthetist: PAC, anesthesia, post op ICU management
 Dressing of the wound
 Pre & post operative care
 Pre op equipment and drugs to be checked and kept ready
 Assist anesthetist in the OT
 Assist the surgeon, positioning of the patient
Human Resources
Surgeon – 1
Medical Officer /
Assistant Surgeon – 1
Anesthetist – 1
Pathologist – 1
Staff Nurse – 1
Technician – 1
Nursing Orderly – 1
Sweeper – 1
Blood Sugar
S. Electrolytes
X-Ray – Chest
I.V. Fluids
Anesthetic drugs
OT Table & lights
Instrument trolley
Laparoscopic Surgery set
General Surgery Set
Anesthetic Equipment



General Surgery : Blunt Abdominal Trauma

1. Name of the condition: Blunt abdominal trauma
2. When to suspect/ recognize?
a. Introduction: Blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) is an increasingly common problem encountered in the emergency department. The usual causes of BAT include vehicular accident, assault, falls, sports injuries and natural disasters.
b. Case definition: BAT is suspected in any patient involved in above situations and presents with abdominal pain, distention or shock. It should be looked for in patients of polytrauma.
3. Incidence of the condition in our country: One study has reported 2.1% incidence of BAT amongst all surgical patients admitted to a tertiary hospital during 1 year.
4. Differential diagnosis:Abdominal trauma forms adifferential diagnosis of any patient presenting with acute abdomen.
5. Prevention and counseling: Use of appropriate safety measures during various activities associated with BAT can significantly reduce its incidence.
6. Optimal diagnostic criteria, investigations, treatment and referral criteria:
a. Situation 1 At Secondary Hospital/ Non-metro situation: Optimal standard of treatment in situations where resources are limited
I. Clinical diagnosis:This is based on
a. High level of suspicion of intra-abdominal injury
b. Presence of wounds/ bruising on the abdomen
c. Abdominal guarding/ tenderness
d. Presence of free gas/ fluid in the peritoneal cavity
e. Presence of fracture of lower ribs and/ or pelvis increases the likelihood of intra-abdominal injury
f. Note should be made of altered mental state, drug or alcohol intoxication and distracting injuries which may mask the features of BAT
g. Repeated examination increases the accuracy of diagnosis
II. Investigations:
a. All hemodynamically stable patients with suspected BAT should undergo Focused Abdominal Sonography in Trauma (FAST)or Diagnostic Peritoneal Lavage (DPL)
b. Urgent laparotomy is indicated in patients with evidence of BAT who remain hemodynamically unstable despite initial resuscitation
III. Treatment (Standard operating procedure):
a. Inpatient:

i. All patients should have initial cervical stabilization and resuscitation, if required
ii. Initial fluid resuscitation should be done with 2L warmed Ringer Lactate solution infusedrapidly through 2 peripheral lines
iii. A nasogastric tube and a Foley catheter should be put
iv. Laparotomy should be done, if indicated on the basis of clinical features, FASTor DPL
v. Laparotomy should be done through a long midline incision
vi. Bleeding should be controlled by clamping/ packing till definitive control is possible
vii. Hollow viscus should be repaired
viii. In case the intra-abdominal injuries are extensive, patient is very sick and OT facilities/ surgeon’s experience is suboptimal, Damage Control Surgery may be done. Definitive surgery should be done subsequently under improved circumstances or at a higher center.
b. Outpatient: Not indicated
c. Day care: Not indicated
IV. Referral criteria: After Damage Control Surgery if the local facilities are inadequate.
b. Situation 2 At Superspecialty Facility in Metro location where higher end technology is available
1. Clinical diagnosis: Same as 6a
2. Investigations:
a. Same as 6a
b. CECT abdomen is preferred investigation in all hemodynamically stable patients with BAT
c. Angiography and angioembolization may be considered in hemodynamically stable patients with solid organ injury who are suitable for non-operative management
3. Treatment (Standard operating procedure):
a. Inpatient:
i. Same as 6a
ii. In case the intra-abdominal injuries are extensive, patient is very sick and surgeon’s experience is suboptimal, Damage Control Surgery may be done. Definitive surgery should be done subsequently under improved circumstances
iii. Angiography and angioembolization may be considered in hemodynamically stable patients with solid organ injury who are suitable for non-operative management
b. Outpatient: Not indicated
c. Day care: Not indicated
4. Referral criteria: Not indicated
7. Who does what and timelines:
a. Doctor: Does initial evaluation, subsequent monitoring, decision regarding investigations and therapeutic intervention.
b. Nurse: Assists in resuscitation, monitoring, investigation and treatment.
c. Technician: Assists in resuscitation, investigation and treatment.
8. Further reading/ references
a. Udeani J, Steinberg SR. Blunt abdominal trauma. URL:
b. Joint theatre Trauma System Clinical Practice Guideline: Blunt abdominal trauma.

c. M. Swarnkar, P. Singh & S. Dwivedi : Pattern Of Trauma In Central India: An Epidemiological Study With Special Reference To Mode Of Injury. The Internet Journal of Epidemiology.

abdominal truama -laproscopic diagnosis injury by sharp weapon



Dr Sanjay Gupta
Professor, Department of Surgery
University College of Medical Sciences, Delhi

General Surgery

The Department of General and Minimally Invasive Surgery is a full-fledged healthcare facility providing complete evaluation, diagnosis, and surgical treatment for a wide variety of disorders. The department uses an integrated

approach to deliver superb care and compassion. In India uses the most advanced minimally invasive surgical innovations and technology to cure the patients.

ct-scanfluoroscopymemmographybone-densitometryx-ray cath-lab

Risk factor and Prevention of Cancer

Risk factor and Prevention of Cancer:

The old saying, “An ounce of prevention is better than a pound of cure”, holds true not only for infectious diseases but also for cancer.

Why cancer prevention is important?

Most cancers are lifestyle-related risk factors. In India, tobacco-related cancers account for 48% of the total cancer cases and cervical cancers form the bulk (36%) of cancers in females.

Primary Prevention

Primary prevention refers to a reduced or to eliminate exposure to carcinogens.

Primary prevention includes:

  • Compulsory education about tobacco related cancers, unhealthy sexual habits and cancer preventive diet.

Modifiable cancer risk factors:

  • Tobacco causes cancers at many sites. Alcohol consumption is associated with oral, oesophageal and other cancers;
  • Obesity associated with increased risk of colon, breast and other cancers.
  • Balanced mixed diet can prevent several cancers.


This includes the use of natural or synthetic substances to reduce the risk of developing cancer or its recurrence.

Eg: Selective oestrogen receptor modulators (tamoxifen), NSAIDs, (COX-2 inhibitors) for colon cancer, Retinoids (cis-retinoic acid) for primary cancers of the head and neck and Finasteride, an alpha-reductase inhibitor that can lower the risk of prostate cancer. Vaccines are used to prevent infection by oncogenic agents against hepatitis B for cancers of liver and Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine for prevention of Cervical Cancer.Genetic testing with BRCA1, 2 has lead to prophylactic oophorectomy and mastectomy for Breast & Ovarian Cancer, prophylactic colectomy in adenomatous polyposis gene mutation.

Diet and Cancer

Diet is one of the aetiological factors in carcinogenesis. Epidemiological studies (study done by Doll and Peto) have shown that 35% of cancers are associated with diet.

Fat present in red meat modifies DNA synthesis, alters the microflora and induces the production of oestrogens, associated with breast and colon cancers.

Micronutrients and cancer

Micronutrients – vitamins and minerals, non-nutrients such as proteins (legumes), monoterpenes (citrus fruits), polyphenoles (tea and spices) and allium (onion and garlic) have protective effects and prevent cancer. They act through metabolic, antioxidant, differentiation and immune modulation.

Dietary recommendations

  • Increased intake of vegetables and fruits (minimum of five servings per day)
  • Intake of 55% carbohydrates, <30% fats and 20-30g of fibre
  • Avoidance of salt-cured and smoked food
  • Limitation of alcohol.

Secondary prevention includes screening programmes.

Recommendations for the early detection in asymptomatic persons

Screening programmes are:

  • Opportunistic, in which the population seeks medical professionals.
  • Organized, in which medical professionals approach the public.



Neurosurgery (or neurological surgery) is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.

Main divisions of neurosurgery

General neurosurgery involves most neurosurgical conditions including neuro-trauma and other neuro-emergencies such as intracranial hemorrhage. Most level 1 hospitals have this kind of practice.

Specialized branches have developed to cater to special and difficult conditions. These specialized branches co-exist with general neurosurgery in more sophisticated hospitals. To practice these higher specialization within neurosurgery, additional higher fellowship training of 1–2 years is expected from the neurosurgeon. Some of these divisions of neurosurgery are:

  1. Vascular and endovascular neurosurgery
  2. Stereotactic,functional and epilepsy neurosurgery
  3. Oncological neurosurgery
  4. Skull-Butt Surgery
  5. Spine neurosurgery
  6. Peripheral nerve surgery
  7. Pediatric neurosurgery


The pathology confronted by neurosurgeons could be either congenital, acquired, traumatic, due to infection, or neoplastic or degenerative conditions. Conditions like congenital hydrocephalus, pediatric tumors and myelomeningocele are encountered in children. Trauma with head or spine injury and bleeds due to arteriovenous malformation are encountered in young adults. Degenerative spine disease, aneurysm bleeds and Parkinson’s disease are encountered in much older patients. The science of neuropathology is a well developed branch of pathology.


Neuroanesthesia is a highly developed science that is linked to neurosurgery. This branch of medicine plays a very important part in day-to-day neurosurgery.

Neurosurgery methods

1. Vascular and endovascular neurosurgery.

2. Stereotactic, functional and epilepsy neurosurgery

3. Oncological neurosurgery

4. Skull- Butt surgery

5. Spine neurosurgery

6. Peripheral Nerve surgery

7.Pediatric neurosurgery



y plays a key role not only in diagnosis but also in the operative phase of neurosurgery.

Neuroradiology methods are used in modern neurosurgery diagnosis and treatment. They include computer assisted imaging computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and the stereotactic radiosurgery. Some neurosurgery procedures involve the use of intra-operative MRI and functional MRI.

In conventional open surgery the neurosurgeon opens the skull and uses a large opening to access the brain. Techniques of using smaller openings and using microscopes and endoscopes were developed later. With these smaller openings in conjunction with high-clarity microscopic visualization of neural tissue, excellent results can be obtained. However, the open methods are still used in trauma or emergency situations.[10] Principles of Neurosurgery-Rengachari, Ellenbogen, [11] Neurotrauma and Critical Care of the Brain-Jallo, Loftus .’

Microsurgery is utilized in many aspects of neurological surgery. Microvascular techniques are used in EC-IC by-pass surgery and in restoration carotid endarterectomy. The clipping of an aneurysm is performed under microscopic vision. Minimally invasive spine surgery utilizes microscopes or endoscopes. Procedures such as microdiscectomy, laminectomy, and artificial disc replacement rely on microsurgery.[5]

Using Stereotaxy neurosurgeons can approach a minute target in the brain through a minimal opening. This is used in functional neurosurgery where electrodes are implanted or gene therapy is instituted with high level of accuracy as in the case of Parkinson’s disease or Alzheimer’s disease. Using the combination method of open and stereotactic surgery, intraventricular hemorrhages can potentially be evacuated successfully.[6]

Minimally invasive endoscopic surgery is commonly utilized by neurosurgeons when appropriate. Techniques such as endoscopic endonasal surgery are used in pituitary tumors, craniopharyngiomas, chordomas, and the repair of cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Ventricular endoscopy is used in the treatment of intraventricular bleeds, hydrocephalus, colloid cyst and neurocysticercosis. Endonasal endoscopy is at times carried out with neurosurgeons and ENT surgeons working together as a team.

Repair of craniofacial disorders and disturbance of cerebrospinal fluid circulation is done by neurosurgeons who also occasionally team up with maxillofacial and plastic surgeons. Cranioplasty for craniosynostosis is performed by pediatric neurosurgeons with or without plastic surgeons.

Neurosurgeons are involved in Stereotactic Radiosurgery along with Radiation Oncologists in tumor and AVM treatment. Radiosurgical methods such as Gamma knife, Cyberknife and Novalis Shaped Beam Surgery are used as well.

Endovascular Neurosurgery utilize endovascular image guided procedures for the treatment of aneurysms, AVMs, carotid stenosis, strokes, and spinal malformations, and vasospasms. Techniques such as angioplasty, stenting, clot retrieval, embolization, and diagnostic angiography are endovascular procedures.

A common procedure performed in neurosurgery is the placement of Ventriculo-Peritoneal Shunt (VP Shunt). In pediatric practice this is often implemented in cases of congenital hydrocephalus. The most common indication for this procedure in adults is Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH).

Neurosurgery of the spine covers the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine. Some indications for spinal coed surgery include spinal cord compression resulting from trauma, arthritis of the spinal discs, or spondylosis. In cervical cord compression, patients may have difficulty with gait, balance issues, and/or numbness and tingling in the hands or feet. Spondylosis is the condition of spinal disc degeneration and arthritis that compresses the spinal canal. This can often result in bone-spurring and disc herniation. Power drills and special instruments are often used to correct any compression problems of the spinal canal. Disk herniations of spinal vertebral discs are removed by Kerrison pitiutary rongeurs. T

his procedure is known aa a discectomy. A laminectomy is the removal of the Lamina portion of the vertebrae of the spine in order to make room for the compressed nerve tissue. Radiology assisted spine surgery is a minimally-invasive procedure and includes the techniques of vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty in which certain types of spinal fractures are managed.

Surgery performed in order to produce spinal analgesia are also often performed by neurosurgeons. Some of these techniques include implantation of deep brain stimulators, spinal cord stimulators and pain pumps.

Surgery of the peripheral nervous system is also possible, and includes the very common procedures of carpal tunnel decompression and peripheral nerve transposition. Numerous other types of nerve entrapment conditions and other problems with the peripheral nervous system are treated as well.




Triplets born to Omani Nationals

Triplets born to Omani Nationals Mr. Khamis & Mrs. Aisha after successful IVF treatment from Lifeline Multispeciality, Hospital, Kerala. Mr. Khamis traveled all the way from Oman to Lifeline to share his overwhelming Joy with Dr. Pappachan and Staff. We congratulate and salute the proud parents for their efforts.