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Pneumonia is an infection in one or both lungs, Bacteria , viruses and fungi cause it. The infection causes inflammation in the air sacs in your lungs, which are called alveoli. The alveoli fill with fluid or pus making it difficult to breath


The signs and symptoms vary from mild to severe , depending on factors such as the type of germ causing the infection and your age and overall health. Mild signs and symptoms often are similar to those of a cold or flu but they last longer

Signs and symptoms of Pneumonia may include

  • Chest pain when you breath and cough
  • Confusion or changes in mental awareness
  • Cough may produce phlegm
  • Fatigue
  • Fever  , sweating and shaking chills
  • Lower than normal body temperature
  • Nausea , vomiting, or diarrhea
  • Shortness of breath


The most common are bacteria and viruses in the air we breath. Your body usually prevents these germs from infecting your lungs . But sometimes these germs can over power your immune system , even if your health id generally good. Pneumonia is classified  according to the types of germs that cause it and where you get the infection

  • COMMUNITY ACQUIRED PHEUMONIA- It is the most common type of pneumonia .It occurs outside of hospitals or other health care facilities. It may be caused by  a) Bacteria b)Fungi c) Viruses
  • HOSPITAL ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA- From the people catch pneumonia during a hospital stay for another illness.  Hospital acquired pneumonia can be serious because the bacteria causing it may be more resistant to antibiotics and because the people who get it are already sick
  • HEALTH CARE ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA- It is a bacterial infection that occurs in people who live in long term care facilities or who receive care in out patient clinics , including kidney dialysis centers
  • ASPIRATION PHEUNOMIA- It occurs when you inhale food , drink , vomit or saliva into your lungs . Aspiration is most likely if something disturbs your normal gag reflex such as a brain injury or swallowing problem or excessive use of alcohol or drugs


  • Children who are 2 years old or younger
  • People who are age 65 or older
  • Being hospitalized
  • Chronic disease
  • Smoking
  • Weakened or suppressed immune system


  • Bacteria in the blood stream
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Fluid accumulation around the lungs
  • Lung abscess


Treatment for pneumonia involves curing the infection and preventing complications. Specific treatments depend on the type and severity of your pneumonia , your age and your overall health. The options include

  • Antibiotics
  • Cough medicine
  • Fever reducers
  • Pain relievers


  • You are older than 65
  • You are confused about time , people or places
  • Your kidney function has declined
  • Your systolic blood pressure is below 90 mm Hg or your diastolic blood pressure is 60 mm Hg below
  • Breathing is rapid
  • You need breathing assistance
  • Your heart rate below 50 or abv 100

To get opinion from our network of hospitals visit or send email to

Prepared by: Dr Sajna Hamza

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