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lung 11


Lung cancer occurs when cells divide in the lungs uncontrollably .This causes tumors to grow .These can reduce a persons ability to breathe and spread to other parts of the body


Main types are

  • Non small cell lung cancer – there are three subtypes
  1. adenocarcinoma
  2. squamous cell cancer
  3. large cell carcinoma
  • Small cell lung cancer- these type tend to grow more quickly than non small cell lung cancer


Early symptoms

  • A cough that wont quit or changes
  • Breathing changes or wheezing
  • Body pain
  • Raspy ,hoarse voice
  • Drop in weight

Advanced symptoms

  • Fatigue
  • Pain
  • Breathing
  • Persistent coughing
  • Loss of appetite
  • Coughing blood


90 % are caused by smoking .From the moment you inhale smoke into your lungs it starts damaging your lung tissue .  Once cells get damaged they behave abnormally and eventually cancer may develop


  • Smoking
  • Exposure to secondary smoke
  • Previous radiation therapy
  • Exposure to radon gas
  • Exposure to asbestos and other carcinogens
  • Family history


  • Shortness  of breath
  • Coughing up blood
  • Pain
  • Fluid in chest ( pleural effusion)
  • Metastasis


  • Imaging tests-X ray, CT
  • Sputum cytology
  • Tissue sample ( biopsy)


  • SURGERY-During surgery your surgeon works to remove the lung cancer and a margin of healthy tissue. Procedures to remove lung cancer include:

a)Wedge resection – to remove a small section of lung that contains the tumor alone with a margin of                                                                                                     healthy tissue

b)Segmental resection- to remove a larger portion of lung but not an entire lobe

c)Lobectomy- to remove the entire lobe of one lung

d)Pneumonectomy-to remove entire lung

  • RADIATION THERAPY – For people with locally advanced lung cancer ,radiation may be used before surgery  before surgery or after surgery. Its often combined with chemotherapy treatment
  • CHEMOTHERAPY- Chemotherapy is often used after surgery to kill any cancer cells that may remain .It can be used alone or in combined  with radiation therapy. Chemotherapy may also be used before surgery to shrink cancers and make them easier to  remove
  • TARGETED DRUG THERAPY- These treatments focus on specific abnormalities present within cancer cells. By blocking these abnormalities , targeted drug treatments can cause cancer cells to die
  • IMMUNO THERAY- Immuno therapy uses your immune system to fight cancer. Your body’s  disease fighting immune system may not attack your cancer because the cancer cells produce proteins that help them hide from the immune system cells
  • PALLIATIVE CARE-People with lung cancer often experiences signs and symptoms of the caner as well as side effects of the treatment .Supportive care also known as palliative care is a specialty area of medicine  that involves working with a doctor to minimize your signs and symptoms


To get opinion from our network of hospitals visit or send email to

Prepared by-Dr Sajna Hamza

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