Kidneys are the excretory organs in humans which remove fluid waste from the blood as urine. Lack of fluid amount added to the accumulation of certain mineral crystals leads to sticking together of clumps of wastes to form the kidney stone. It is also called renal calculi.Usually men are at more risk than women. It is usually accompanied by severe pain while urinating.
The major risk factors for the occurrence of kidney stone are
- Reduced intake of water
- Following a diet rich in protein, sodium and/or sugar.
- Obese nature of the body.
- Weak and unhealthy kidney.
- High levels of cystine, oxalate, uric acid or calcium in urine.
- Swelling or irritation in bowel or joints.
- Certain medications
- A family history of kidney stone.
In severe cases kidney stones are accompanied with complications like severe pain while urinating, pain in back or lower abdomen, blood in the urine and nausea and vomiting.Other symptoms of kidney stones include pus in the urine, reduced amount of urine excreted, burning sensation while urinating, frequent urge to urinate, fever and chills if there is an infection. It can also lead to other kidney complications like Chronic kidney disease.
To prevent kidney stone is to follow a healthy diet with plenty of water and adequate consumption of calcium. Limiting sodium and animal protein (meat, eggs) in the diet may also help to prevent kidney stones. However any changes in the diet should be made only with the advice of the doctor. Intake of basil, celery, apples, grapes and pomegranates protect the kidneys from kidney stones.
The treatment for kidney stones is carried out by rehydrating the patient via an intravenous (IV) tube, and administration of an anti-inflammatory medication. Since passing of the stone is accompaned by severe pain narcotics are used to relieve the pain. Lithotripsy is a treatment that breaks the kidney stone into smaller pieces and allow it to pass.