Gingivitis is a very common gum disease that appears as red, swollen irritable inflammation of the gum or gingiva. Gingiva is the part of the gum lining the base of the teeth. The inflammation is caused by the buildup of plaque on the teeth or gum. Plaque is sticky film that contains bacteria which irritates and weakens the gum. As a result the gums turn red,swollen, puffy and starts to bleed. Gingivitis is the major cause for bleeding in most of the adults.
The most common cause for gingivitis is poor oral hygiene. Apart from this, gingivitis can also occur as a result of smoking or tobacco use, improper removal of plaque while brushing and flossing, hormonal or physiological changes (such as puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, menopause), stress that weakens the immune system to fight infection, poor nutrition especially due to the lack of vitamin C in diet, certain medications, and some diseases including diabetics, cancer etc.
- Red and puffy gums
- Tender and receding gums
- mild pain and irritation on the inflamed gum
- Bleeding when you brush or floss
- Tooth sensitiveness to hot and cold foods or beverages.
- Bad breath caused by the bacteria in plaque
- Examination of your teeth and gums, for signs of plaque and inflammation.
- Measuring the depth of grove between the gums and teeth at multiple locations inside the mouth.
- Check for the severity of bone lose at affected areas by taking dental X-rays
- Dental cleaning, apart from regular brushing and flossing a professional cleaning helps to remove the plaque surrounding the gingiva completely.
- Restoration of misaligned teeth which are more vulnerable for infections.
- Use of an anti gingivitis toothpaste and anti gingivitis mouth wash.
- Regular brushing and flossing.
- Use of soft toothbrush and replacing it at every three to four months.