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Vitamins are organic compounds,required to the body in small amounts,so categorized under micro nutrients.Also classified under protective and regulatory food.They do not yield energy,but help the body to utilize other nutrients


  • Fat soluble – Vitamin A,D,E &K
  • water soluble – Vitamin B & C


  • It acts as a regulator of cell and tissue growth and differentiation
  • it is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol,retinal and several pro vitamin A carotenoids
  • it is important for growth and development for the maintenance of the immune system
  • for good vision
  • immunity-susceptibility to infection and lowered immune response is found in  deficiency of vitamin A
  • Vitamin A is needed by the retina of the eye in the form of retinal ,which combines with protein opsin to form rhodopsin,the light-absorbing molecule necessary for both low light and color vision
  • it also functions in a very different role as retinoic acid,which is an important hormone like growth factor for epithelial and other cells
  • Vitamin A covers both vitamin and pro vitamins
  • Vitamin A retinol is from animal source
  • Pro vitamin of vitamin A is beta-carotene.It is converted into retinol by intestinal mucosa


  • Animal origin- Liver,eggs,butter,cheese,whole milk,fish and meat
  • Plant origin – green leafy vegetables,spinach,yellow fruits,papaya,mango,pumpkin,roots like carrot
  • Artificially fortified foods-milk, vanaspathi,margarine


Stored in the liver in the form of retinol palmitate.The store is sufficient to meet the needs for 6-9 months


Predominantly ocular manifestations,less commonly extra ocular manifestations also found


it includes all ocular manifestations of Vitamin A deficiency from night blindness to keratomalacia

  1. Night blindness
  2. Conjunctival xerosis
  3. Bitots spots
  4. Corneal xerosis
  5. keratomalacia

Night blindness:

It is beginning stage of Vitamin A deficiency with inability to see in the dim light

Conjuctival xerosis:

First clinical sign of Vitamin A deficiency ,conjunctiva is dry and non wettable. Instead of smooth and shining conjunctiva appears muddy and wrinkled

Bitots spots:

Triangular pearly white or yellowish foamy spots on bulbar conjunctiva on either side of cornea ,usually bilateral is known as bitots spot

Corneal xerosis:

Serious condition,cornea appears dull,dry,non wettable and eventually opaque.Severe deficiency leads to corneal ulceration.It may heal with scars which are opaque


Liquefaction of cornea takes place ,cornea may become soft & may burst open.The process is rapid ,eye collapses and vision is lost


They consist of follicular hyperkeratosis, anorexia and growth retardation


  1. Improvement of diet ,regular and sufficient intake of vitamin  rich food
  2. By preventing contributory factors Ex.PEM,respiratory infection,diarrhea,measles
  3. Prophylactic dose of vitamins A-single massive dose of retinol palmitate orally,to all preschool children(1-6 yrs)once in 6 months is advocated, 1-6 yr -2,00,000 IU of retinol  palmitte, 6 months -1 yrs -1,00,000 IU of retinol palmitate

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The sciatic nerve is the largest nerve in the human body and sciatic is pain which occurs due to irritation of the sciatic nerve

The pain which might feel like a bad leg cramp or can be a shooting pain that makes standing or sitting nearly impossible,is typically felt from the lower back to behind the thigh and radiates down below the knee


  • Herniated or slipped disc:this will cause pressure on the nerve and as a result pain occurs along path of the nerve
  • Piriformis syndrome:which occurs when the small piriformis muscle,which lies deep in the buttocks,becomes tight and spasms,thus putting pressure on and irritating sciatic nerve
  • Spinal stenosis: this results from narrowing of the spinal canal which puts pressure on the nerve
  • Spondylolisthesis: that occurs when one vertebrae slips,so that it is out of line with one above it,narrowing the opening through which sciatic nerve exist


  • Changes in the spine due to advancing age,such as herniated disks and bone spurs
  • being obese which stresses the spine
  • sitting for prolonged period
  • leading a sedentary life style
  • diabetes
  • jobs which require to carry heavy loads,drive for long periods,repeatedly twist your back


  • Lower back pain
  • pain in the rear or leg which worse when sitting
  • hip pain
  • burning or tingling in the leg
  • weakness
  • numbness
  • difficulty in moving the leg or foot
  • shooting pain making difficulty in stand up


  • Permanent nerve damage
  • loss of feeling in the affected leg
  • weakness of leg
  • loss of bowel or bladder control


  • X ray
  • CT
  • MRI


  • Medications
  • physical therapy:your Doctor may recommend to perform a few back exercises and streches

Exercise:in Sciatica exercises usually the focus on stregthening and streching the spinal column and muscles and tendons

  • Surgery:Micro discectomy is a common surgical approach used to treat sciatica that is caused by a lumbar disc this surgery,a small part of the disc material under the nerve root is taken out.while technically an open surgery,a microdiscectomy uses minimal invasive techniques and can be done with relatively small incision and minimal damage

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It refers to a degenerative process affecting the vertebral disc and facet joints that gradually develops with age.The condition can narrow the spinal canal that results in the compression of spinal cord and nerve roots

Usually the conditions associated with cervical spondylosis arise from the regular wear and tear of the bones and cartilages located in the neck region


Bone spur: The overgrowth of the bones in the neck or spine area could be due to body trying to grow some extra bone for making the spine stronger.However the growth of extra bones could start pressing on delicate ares of the spine including spinal cord ,nerves and surrounding muscles leading to pain and discomfort

Herniated Discs: This happens due to the development of cracks in the spinal discs.these cracks allow the leakage of the internal material required for cushioning.The material could press on the nerve and spinal coed and would thus,result in symptoms

Dehydrated spinal discs: The presence of the gel like material between the discs of spine bones could dry out with passage of time.this would lead to rub the spinal vertebrae against each other that could result in immense pain

Injury: Injury in neck during some accident or fall


  • Age over 60
  • accident
  • excessive work resulting in wear and tear


  • Pain around shoulder blade
  • pain along entire arm and finger
  • stiffness in the neck muscles
  • constant headaches that usually occur towards the back of head
  • numbness or tingling affecting the arms and shoulder


While making the diagnosis of cervical spondylosis ,it is essential for the doctor to rule out the possibility of having fibromyalgia


  • X-ray
  • CT
  • MRI Scan
  • EMG


  • Spinal nerve injury
  • Neck Injury
  • Paralysis


  • Physical therapy
  • Medication
  • Surgery-When the condition becomes severe,then surgery of the affected area remains only option to get relief from pain


In this the problematic disk and additional bone spur are removed and stabilize the spine through spinal fusion .Typically a plate with screws is added to the front of the spine for added stability

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A cancer that forms in the cells of the breast.common between age 40-50.

  1. breast cance


  1. Unmarried women
  2. nulliparous women
  3. women with bad obstrectic history
  4. high in oral contraceptives


  1. lumb in the breast
  2. bloody discharge from breast
  3. changes in shape or texture of the nipple or breast

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a) intra dochal -within the ducts

b) extra dochal-outside the ducts


1.Invasive duct carcinoma-common form ,lumb is very broad &irregular causes drowning of the nipple .

2. Medullary carcinoma-primary tumors is soft and circumscribed and may attain a large size

3. Colloid CA/Tubular CA – Appear as well defined masses common in elderly

4.Inflammatory CA – Seen usually during pregnancy and lactation.Breast is often painful

5. Technical Types

Mastitis Carcinoma:i.e carcinoma + inflammation ;retracted nipple;skin is red ,warm and painful


Stage 1 – Growth confined to breast;An area of adherence to the skin smaller than the periphery of the tumor does not affect staging.Even ulceration of the skin in the area defined does not alter it

Stage 2 – same as stage 1 but palpable,mobile,lymph node gathering of growth to the pectoral muscle

Stage 3 – skin involvement larger than tumor. Tumor fixed to pectoral muscle.if the nodes are palpable they must be mobile

Stage 4 –

  • Skin involvement as stage 3
  • Tumor fixed to chest wall
  • Axillary nodes are not mobile
  • Palpable nodes in supra clavicular fossa
  • Secondary deposits in skin
  • Secondary deposits in the opposite breast
  • Distant metastasis

The physician or surgeon can easily notice certain peculiar features in the breast in the conditions of any breast cancer

1. Peu-d-orange

2. Oedema of the arm

3. Browny arm

4. Development of carcinomatous nodules on the affected side of the chest wall .


1.Local spread – From mammary gland to skin muscles and chest wall

2. Lymphatic Spread – Leading to inflammatory of internal mammary lymph nodes,supraclavicular node,axillary lymph nodes etc…

3. Spread  by Blood Stream – To ribs ,lumbar vertebra, femur,thoracic vertebrae, to the skull,may lead to pathological fractures

4. Spread to liver – May lead to jaundice

5. Transcoelomic spread


a) Needle biopsy/FNAC

b)Trephine biopsy

c)Open biopsy

d)Frozen section biopsy






  1. hormonal
  2. endocrine manipulations
  3. radio therapy
  4. oestrogen blockers
  5. immuno therapy
  6. chemo therapy

At present ,radical mastectomy or extended radical mastectomy offers the prospect of long survival provided the neoplasm categorized as belonging to stage 1 and stage 2 .when stages  3 and 4 are reached,the interests of the patient are best served by simple mastectomy and radiotherapy provided the tumor is hormone stimulated ,with endocrine therapy.


The breast and associated structures are dissected enblock, and the excised mass is composed of

  1. The whole breast
  2. A large portion of skin ,the centre of which overlies the tumor ,but always included the nipple,where there is much skin involvement more skin must be sacrificed
  3. The  fat and fascia from the tumor border of the clavicle to,including the upper quater of the sheath of the rectus abdominis and from the sternum to the anterior border of the latismus dorsi
  4. pectoralis major,and its fascial sheath
  5. pectoralis minor and sheath
  6. the costo-coracoid membrane
  7. all the fat,fascia and lymph nodes of the axilla
  8. the fascia over and a few fibres of the external oblique,serratus anterior subscapularis ,the latismus dorsi and the upper part of the rectus abdominis

2)Extended radical mastectomy

In this ,the radical mstectomy along with removal of internal mammory lymph glands and second inter costal muscle

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It is a non progressive neurological disorder of movement ,posture and tone due to a non progressive pathological process in the brain caused by an insult to the developing brain



Depending on the site and extent of involvement ,it may be associated with

  • visual disturbances
  • seizures
  • mental retardation


Both prenatal and perinatal factors are considered.

1. prematurity

2. kernicterus

3. structurally abnormal brain

4. birth asphyxia




  1. spastic CP
  2. Extra pyramidal CP
  3. Cerebellar or ataxic CP
  4. Mixed CP

Spastic C P

Again classified into

  1. Diplegic C P
  2. Hemiplegic C P
  3. Quadriplegic C P

Diplegic C P

commonest form of C P in preterm


  1. spastic lower limbs with increased tendon jerks and extensor plantar  response
  2. scissoring of legs
  3. visual disturbances

Hemiplegic C P

There is paresis of one side of body with upper motor neuron type of spasticity increased reflexes and extensor plantar response

Quadriplegic C P

  1. spasticity in all the four limbs with pseudo bulbar palsy
  2. severe mental retardation
  3. epilepsy

Extra pyramidal C P

Distonia and choreoathetosis in various propotions

  1. Defective coordination of movements
  2. defective regulation of muscle tone,resulting in the inability to execute the intended movements

Ataxic C P

Manifest only in second year of life,before that the child may remain floppy without other cerebellar signs



  1. CT
  2. MRI
  3. TORCH screening for associated symptoms


Treatment of associated defects and optimum utilization of available motor functions become important

Treatment of associated deficits

  • seizures can be controlled with anticonvulsants
  • early stimulation aimed at functional development of various modalities is a must
  • physiotherapy
  • prevention of contractures -splinting  may prevent this
  • avoid\make use of abnormally persisting reflexes
  • reflex stimulation
  • training in motor activities
  • education
  • Orthopedic & neurosurgical measures
  1.    arthrodesis of the wrist,ankle etc may be considered if it adds to the functional recovery
  2. in established contracture , muscle lengthening to decrease the adduction of hip,flexion of knee etc..
  3. surgical transfer of tendons to the muscles of desired function and release of tendo achilles contracture
  4. peripheral nerve section (obturator nerve) may help to reduce adductor spasm
  5. a more advanced surgery is selective motor fasiculotomy where selected fasicule of a nerve that causes undesirable hyper tones is cut off after identifying them by stimulation studies
  6. surgical implants of electrodes in   selected areas over the dura of spinal cord can be used for spinal stimultaion


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Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar Disorder


Bipolar disorder is a serious mental health condition in which some individuals experience alternating periods of high energy levels and extremely low mood. People with bipolar disorder may find the COVID-19 pandemic and resulting lockdown to be particularly challenging to manage.

Do you feel very happy and outgoing—or very irritable—on some days, but unusually sad or anxious on other days? Do the “up” periods go along with increased energy or activity? Do the “downs” go along with low energy, hopelessness, or inability to enjoy what you usually like to do, and sometimes suicidal thoughts? Do these mood swings make it hard to sleep, stay focused, or get things done? Some people with these symptoms have a lifelong but treatable mental disorder called bipolar disorder.

What is bipolar disorder?

Bipolar disorder is a chronic or episodic (which means occurring occasionally and at irregular intervals) mental disorder. It can cause unusual, often extreme and fluctuating changes in mood, energy, activity, and concentration or focus. Bipolar disorder sometimes is called manic-depressive disorder or manic depression, which are older terms.

Everyone goes through normal ups and downs, but bipolar disorder is different. The range of mood changes can be extreme. In manic episodes, someone might feel very happy, irritable, or “up,” and there is a marked increase in activity level. In depressive episodes, someone might feel sad, indifferent, or hopeless, in combination with a very low activity level. Some people have hypomanic episodes, which are like manic episodes, but less severe and troublesome.

Most of the time, bipolar disorder develops or starts during late adolescence (teen years) or early adulthood. Occasionally, bipolar symptoms can appear in children. Although the symptoms come and go, bipolar disorder usually requires lifetime treatment and does not go away on its own. Bipolar disorder can be an important factor in suicide, job loss, and family discord, but proper treatment leads to better outcomes.

Symptoms of bipolar disorder?

The symptoms of bipolar disorder can vary. An individual with bipolar disorder may have manic episodes, depressive episodes, or “mixed” episodes. There are different types of bipolar disorder, which differ in their symptoms and severity.

The main symptoms of bipolar disorder is alternating episodes of high and low mood

Symptoms of a Manic Episode

Feeling very up, high, elated, or extremely irritable or touchy

Feeling jumpy or wired, more active than usual

Decreased need for sleep

Racing thoughts

Thinking you can do a lot of things at once without getting tired

Excessive appetite for food, drinking, sex, or other pleasurable activities

Feeling like you are unusually important, talented, or powerful

Symptoms of a Depressive Episode

Feeling slowed down or restless

Trouble concentrating or making decisions

Feeling very down or sad, or anxious

Unable to do even simple things

Talking very slowly, feeling like you have nothing to say, or forgetting a lot

Feeling hopeless or worthless, or thinking about death or suicide

Most people experience mood changes at some time, but those related to bipolar disorder are more intense than regular mood changes, and other symptoms can occur. Some people experience psychosis, which can include delusions, hallucinations, and paranoia.Anxiety disorders and ADHD often are diagnosed in people with bipolar disorder.People with bipolar disorder are more prone to misusing drugs or alcohol,also eating disorder, such as binge eating or bulimia.

Between episodes, the person’s mood may be stable for months or years, especially if they are following a treatment plan.


The exact cause of bipolar disorder is unknown. However,Men and women are equally likely to get it. research suggests that there is no single cause. Instead, a combination of factors may contribute to bipolar disorder.For example, sometimes it can simply be a matter of genetics, meaning you have it because it runs in your family. The way your brain develops may also play a role, but scientists aren’t exactly sure how or why.

Bipolar Disorder Types

There are a few types of bipolar disorder, including:

Bipolar I disorder: With this type, you have extreme erratic behavior, with manic “up” periods that last at least a week or are so severe that you need medical care. There are also usually extreme “down” periods that last at least 2 weeks.

Bipolar II disorder: With this type, you also have erratic highs and lows, but it isn’t as extreme as bipolar I.

Cyclothymic disorder: This type involves periods of manic and depressive behavior that last at least 2 years in adults or 1 year in children and teens. The symptoms aren’t as intense as bipolar disorder I or bipolar disorder II.

With any type of bipolar disorder, misuse of drugs and alcohol use can lead to more episodes. Having bipolar disorder and alcohol use disorder, known as “dual diagnosis,” requires help from a specialist who can address both issues.


A psychiatrist or other mental health professional diagnoses bipolar disorder based on the symptoms, lifetime course, and experiences of the individual. Some people have bipolar disorder for years before it is diagnosed.

Diagnosing bipolar disorder is all about the person’s symptoms and determining whether they may be the result of another cause (such as low thyroid or mood symptoms caused by drug or alcohol abuse). How severe are they? How long have they lasted? How often do they happen?

The most telling symptoms are those that involve highs or lows in mood, along with changes in sleep, energy, thinking, and behavior.

Talking to close friends and family of the person can often help the doctor distinguish bipolar disorder from major depressive disorder or other psychiatric disorders that can involve changes in mood, thinking, and behavior.

Diagnosing bipolar disorder can be trickier for children and teenagers. Their symptoms may be the same as adults but might be confused for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or even just bad behavior.


Treatment aims to stabilize the person’s mood and reduce the severity of symptoms. The goal is to help the person function effectively in daily life.Bipolar disorder is generally a chronic condition, meaning that there is no cure. However, it is possible to manage the condition and lead a full and productive life. The key is to find the right combination of treatments and remedies, including medications and healthful lifestyle measures, and to stick with them. It may take some time to accomplish this, so friends and family should be patient and remain supportive.

Treatment involves a combination of therapies, including:

  • medication
  • counseling
  • physical intervention
  • lifestyle remedies

It can take time to get a correct diagnosis and find a suitable treatment, as individuals react differently, and symptoms vary widely.

Tips and precautions

The following coping strategies can help people with bipolar disorder proactively navigate the potential problems of COVID-19 and lockdown:

  • acknowledging that these are stressful times during which it is understandable to feel concerned
  • appreciating that the goal is to be able to manage feelings as they manifest
  • establishing a schedule for work, relaxation, and connecting with friends and family, while maintaining the correct physical distancing measures
  • eating regular, healthful meals
  • establishing and following good sleep habits
  • spending some time outside each day
  • staying physically active by walking, running, biking, or using free online exercise options
  • trying to move therapy sessions online — virtual therapy is a great option for those without access to their usual sessions
  • working with a pharmacy to arrange delivery of medication
  • doing various relaxing and engaging activities, from cooking to reading to doing crossword puzzles


Bipolar disorder is a serious mental health condition in which some individuals experience alternating periods of high energy levels and extremely low mood. People with bipolar disorder may find the COVID-19 pandemic and resulting lockdown to be particularly challenging to manage. Above tips and precautions may help them to cope with the same.

Charley Horse

Woman muscle pain during running training

Charley Horse is another name for  muscle spasm – when a muscle suddenly tightens up on its own resulting severe pain.They’re common in your legs, often occurs during exercise and at night. It commonly affects the calf muscle at the back of the lower leg, but it can also occur in the foot and, occasionally, in the thigh.The sudden and uncontrollable spasm can often be brief, but it can last for several minutes or up to 10 minutes.


Doctors do not know exactly why muscle cramps happen when a person is exercising or when they have no other medical conditions.

Things that can trigger a charley horse include:

  • Poor blood flow
  • Working your muscles too much
  • Not stretching enough
  • Being active in high temperatures
  • Dehydration
  • A lack of magnesium and/or potassium in your diet
  • A problem such as a spinal cord injury or a pinched nerve in your neck or back
  • Kidney disease
  • Muscle cramps are also a side effect of some drugs – diuretics, raloxifene (Evista), or statin drugs

Risk factors for charley horses

Muscle spasms can happen to anyone, at any age. And a charley horse can occur at any time of the day or night.

Charley horses do tend to occur more often among people in the following groups:

  • athletes
  • infants
  • older adults
  • people who are obese
  • people taking certain medications like diuretics, raloxifene (Evista), or statin drugs
  • people who smoke

People who are obese are more likely to experience charley horses because of poor circulation in their legs. Athletes often experience charley horses because of muscle fatigue or overuse.

Charley Horse Diagnosis

The occasional charley horse doesn’t require an official medical diagnosis. However, your doctor should investigate frequent, recurrent muscle spasms. This would apply if a charley horse occurs more than once a week without an adequate explanation.

Your doctor can usually make a diagnosis based on your medical history and a physical examination.

The doctor will more than likely ask about their symptoms, including:

  • what the cramping is like and where it occurs
  • when the cramps happen and for how long
  • how severe or regularly the cramps occur
  • whether they have started recently

A doctor is likely to ask about the person’s exercise habits, diet, and any other symptoms, medical problems, or current medications, as well.


There is little evidence that medical intervention can help cure or reduce muscle cramping.

However, when a muscle is cramping, and a person experiences a charley horse, the following action may help them find some relief:

  • If you get a charley horse in your calf or in the back of your thigh (hamstring), put your weight on the affected leg and bend your knee slightly. Or sit or lie down with your leg out straight and pull the top of your foot toward your head.
  • For a cramp in the front of your thigh (quadriceps), hold on to a chair and bend the knee of the affected leg. Pull your foot up toward your buttock.

    Massage, a bath with Epsom salts, or a heating pad can relax the muscle. To fight pain, use an ice pack or take an over-the-counter medication like ibuprofen or naproxen.

    In most cases, the charley horse will stop within a few minutes. But if you get them often and for no clear reason, consult your doctor

  • In severe cases, your doctor may prescribe antispasmodic medication. Also, physical therapy can help you cope with muscle spasms and prevent further complications.
  • In extreme cases, you doctor may recommend surgery. If other treatments fail, surgery can enlarge the space around a nerve to relieve pressure. This may help if nerve compression causes your spasms.

Preventing charley horses

Once you identify the cause of the occasional charley horse, symptoms are generally easy to prevent. Take these steps to help avoid future muscle spasms:

  • Stretch before and after exercise.
  • Avoid exercising the same muscles on consecutive days.
  • Weight loss for people with excess weight
  • Changing to different more comfortable footwear
  • Do not exercise in severe weather.
  • Drink water throughout the day.
  • Drink beverages that contain electrolytes, such as Gatorade.
  • Stretch before going to bed
  • Don’t smoke.
  • Limit Alcohol intake


Charley horses are common and can occur in any muscle at any time. They’re usually treatable and can sometimes be prevented.

Any pain caused by a spasm won’t typically last more than a day. However, if you experience charley horses frequently, talk with your doctor about treatments.

Soy Protein: Good or Bad?

The Festival of lights (6)


Soy protein is a protein that is isolated from soybeans, offers multiple health benefits(Glycine max) are a type of legume native to eastern Asia. Soy protein has received increased attention in recent years among consumers, researchers, and themedia.Individuals with a habitually health-conscious lifestyle (e.g., individuals who did not eat meat, but did eat fish, or were vegetarians or vegans) were more likely to consume soy foods than the average personSoybeans are healthful and rich in protein, giving them numerous nutritional uses. People can eat them, drink them in milk alternatives, and take them in the form of supplements.They are an important component of Asian diets and have been consumed for thousands of years. Today, they are mainly grown in Asia and South and North America.

Nutrition Facts:

Soybeans are among the best sources of plant-based protein.

Soy protein isolate powder is made from defatted soybean flakes that have been washed in either alcohol or water to remove the sugars and dietary fiber. They’re then dehydrated and turned into a powder.

This product contains very little fat and no cholesterol.

Soy protein powder is used to make infant soy formula, as well as a variety of meat and dairy alternatives.

Soybeans are low in saturated fat and high in protein, vitamin C, and folate. They are also a good source of:

  • calcium
  • iron
  • magnesium
  • phosphorus
  • potassium
  • thiamin

The nutritional content of other soy products may vary based on how manufacturers have processed them and which ingredients they have added.



Use of soy products during pregnancy can be encouraged because expectant women are likely to receive the same health benefits as other women. Fortified milk and fortified soymilk are the only reliable dietary sources of vitamin D  All other dairy products contain little or no vitamin D. While many women will obtain enough vitamin D from exposure to sunlight, soymilk may be an alternative for those who are overly sensitive to the sun or for those who simply are not able to be or do not enjoy being outdoors. Soymilk may also be an alternative for women who do not like regular milk.


Consumption of soy protein in place of animal protein has been found to reduce serum concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), and trigylcerides. Individuals with elevated cholesterol seem to receive the greatest benefit.

Obesity and Diabetes

In recent studies, soy protein contributed to the control of hyperglycemia and reduced body weight, hyperlipidemia, and hyperinsulinemia. These characteristics may be useful to both nondiabetic and diabetic persons in the control of obesity and blood sugar.

Cancer Prevention

Genistein, one of the phytochemicals found in soy, can reduce the risk of cancer.  prevention of breast cancer has received the most attention, and more recent attention has focused on prostate cancer. Genistein blocks cancer development by preventing tumors from creating blood vessels that would provide nourishment for growth .

Vegetarians and Vegans

Vegetarians are individuals who, for various reasons, do not eat meat. Vegans, in comparison, are individuals who do not eat any products from animals, including eggs, milk, and cheese. Vitamin B12 is only found in animal products and, therefore, may be lacking in the diet of vegans. Use of soymilk is one way to obtain this essential vitamin. Cereals and meat substitutes are other options.


Infants who are not able to tolerate lactose formulas (those based on cow’s milk, casein/whey-based formulas; e.g., Similac, Enfamil, Carnation) may be prescribed soy-based formulas if they are not breastfed

Types and uses

Soybeans are a high protein plant food that people can prepare and eat in a variety of ways.


Soybeans come in many colors, including:

  • Green soybeans: Young green soybeans are also called edamame. People can steam them and eat them out of the pod as an appetizer. Shelled edamame is also available in salads, stir-fries, and soups.
  • Yellow soybeans: Producers typically use yellow soybeans to make soy milk, tofu, tempeh, and tamari. They also play a role in the production of soy flour for baking.
  • Black soybeans: Several Asian food cultures use simmered or fermented black soybeans in traditional dishes.

Soy milk and cheese are also options for those looking to replace dairy in the diet.

Soybeans also provide soy oil, which people can use for cooking or as an ingredient. After removing the oil from soybeans, people can use the remaining material to make food for farm animals and pets.

Some manufacturers make protein powder and isoflavone supplements from soy. Isoflavones are plant compounds that have a similar structure to estrogen.

Less processed organic soy is the most healthful option. Some examples include:

  • cooked soybeans
  • edamame
  • soy milk
  • tofu
  • tempeh
  • soy nuts


Some people have concerns about the consumption of soy. We cover these concerns in more detail in the sections below.

  • Thyroid function

There is some concern that soy intake may interfere with thyroid function.

Researchers found that women with higher soy intake had a higher chance of having elevated levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH).

A high TSH level may signify an underactive thyroid. Researchers did not find the same results in men.

The authors explain that soy is likely to be safe. However, consuming excessive amounts may create health risks in some people, such as those with undiagnosed hypothyroidism.

  • Flatulence and diarrhea

Like most other beans, soybeans contain insoluble fibers, which may cause flatulence and diarrhea in sensitive individuals.If you have IBS, avoiding or limiting the consumption of soybeans may be a good idea.

  • Soy allergy

Food allergy is a common condition caused by a harmful immune reaction to certain components in foods.Soy allergy is triggered by soy proteins — glycinin and conglycinin — found in most soy products. Even though soybeans are one of the most common allergenic foods, soy allergy is relatively uncommon in both children and adults

Take Away

Soy protein is a complete source of protein,offer benefits to women in various life stages. It may aid muscle building, improved diet and cardiovascular status, prevention of certain types of cancer, improved health following menopause, obesity prevention/control, and more options for food variety. Overall, soy is safe for most people and may offer health benefits, including weight loss.If you like the taste or eat plant-based, go ahead and give soy protein a try.


Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

Image result for mers virus

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is viral respiratory illness that is new to humans. It was first reported in Saudi Arabia in 2012 and has since spread to several other countries, including the United States.Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is an illness caused by a virus (more specifically, a coronavirus) called Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Most MERS patients developed severe respiratory illness with symptoms of fever, cough and shortness of breath. About 3 or 4 out of every 10 patients reported with MERS have died.


Most people confirmed to have MERS-CoV infection have had severe respiratory illness with symptoms of:

  • fever
  • cough
  • shortness of breath
  • Some people also had diarrhea and nausea/vomiting.
  • For many people with MERS, more severe complications followed, such as pneumonia and kidney failure.

Most of the people who died had a pre-existing medical condition that weakened their immune system, or an underlying medical condition that hadn’t yet been discovered. Medical conditions sometimes weaken people’s immune systems and make them more likely to get sick or have severe illness.

Pre-existing conditions among people who got MERS have included

chronic lung disease
chronic heart disease
chronic kidney disease
Some infected people had mild symptoms (such as cold-like symptoms) or no symptoms at all.

The symptoms of MERS start to appear about 5 or 6 days after a person is exposed, but can range from 2 to 14 days.


MERS-CoV, like other coronaviruses, likely spreads from an infected person’s respiratory secretions, such as through coughing. However, we don’t fully understand the precise ways that it spreads.

MERS-CoV has spread from ill people to others through close contact, such as caring for or living with an infected person. Infected people have spread MERS-CoV to others in healthcare settings, such as hospitals. Researchers studying MERS have not seen any ongoing spreading of MERS-CoV in the community.

All reported cases have been linked to countries in and near the Arabian Peninsula. Most infected people either lived in the Arabian Peninsula or recently traveled from the Arabian Peninsula before they became ill. A few people have gotten MERS after having close contact with an infected person who had recently traveled from the Arabian Peninsula. The largest known outbreak of MERS outside the Arabian Peninsula occurred in the Republic of Korea in 2015 and was associated with a traveler returning from the Arabian Peninsula.

Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing of upper and lower respiratory secretions and serum
MERS should be suspected in patients who have an unexplained acute febrile lower respiratory infection and who have had either of the following within 14 days of symptom onset:

Travel to or residence in an area where MERS has recently been reported or where transmission could have occurred
Contact with a health care facility where MERS has been transmitted
Close contact with a patient who was ill with suspected MERS
MERS should also be suspected in patients who have had close contact with a patient with suspected MERS and who have a fever whether they have respiratory symptoms or not.

Testing should include real-time RT-PCR testing of upper and lower respiratory secretions, ideally taken from different sites and at different times. Serum should be obtained from patients and from all, even asymptomatic close contacts, including health care workers (to help identify mild or asymptomatic MERS). Serum is obtained immediately after MERS is suspected or after contacts are exposed (acute serum) and 3 to 4 weeks later (convalescent serum). Testing is done at state health departments.

Treatment of MERS is supportive. To help prevent spread from suspected cases, health care practitioners should use standard, contact, and airborne precautions.

There is no vaccine.

There is currently no vaccine to protect people against MERS. But scientists are working to develop one.

We can help reduce the risk of getting respiratory illnesses:

  • Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, and help young children do the same. If soap and water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
  • Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze, then throw the tissue in the trash.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands.
  • Avoid personal contact, such as kissing, or sharing cups or eating utensils, with sick people.
  • Clean and disinfect frequently touched surfaces and objects, such as doorknobs.

People Who May Be at Increased Risk for MERS:

  • Recent Travelers from the Arabian Peninsula

If you develop a fever and symptoms of respiratory illness, such as cough or shortness of breath, within 14 days after traveling from countries in or near the Arabian Peninsula, you should call ahead to a healthcare provider and mention your recent travel.

  • Close Contacts of an Ill Traveler from the Arabian Peninsula

If you have had close contact with someone within 14 days after they traveled from a country in or near the Arabian Peninsula, and the traveler has/had fever and symptoms of respiratory illness, such as cough or shortness of breath, you should monitor your health for 14 days, starting from the day you were last exposed to the ill person.

  • Healthcare Personnel Not Using Recommended Infection-Control Precautions

Healthcare personnel who had close contact*** with a confirmed case of MERS while the case was ill, if not using recommended infection control precautions (e.g., appropriate use of personal protective equipment), are at increased risk of developing MERS-CoV infection. These individuals should be evaluated and monitored by a healthcare professional with a higher index of suspicion.

  • Close Contacts of a Confirmed Case of MERS

f you have had close contact with someone who has a confirmed MERS-CoV infection, you should contact a healthcare provider for an evaluation. Your healthcare provider may request laboratory testing and outline additional recommendations, depending on the findings of your evaluation and whether you have symptoms.

  • People with Exposure to Camels

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Direct contact with camels is a risk factor for human infection with MERS-CoV.

The World Health Organization considers certain groups to be at high risk for severe MERS. These groups include people with diabetes, kidney failure, or chronic lung disease, and people who have weakened immune systems. The World Health Organization recommends that these groups take additional precautions:

  1. Avoid contact with camels
  2. Do not drink raw camel milk or raw camel urine
  3. Do not eat undercooked meat, particularly camel meat

We’re sure, you now have a fair idea of what MERS-CoV is all about and the way it could impact your life. Please seek immediate medical attention at the nearest healthcare centre if you find the MERS-CoV. symptoms, don’t ignore the symptoms as there is no medicine available at present.

suggested reading COVID -19

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak


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Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) that was first reported from Wuhan, China, on 31 December 2019Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV). A novel coronavirus (nCoV) is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans.

Coronaviruses are zoonotic, meaning they are transmitted between animals and people. Detailed investigations found that SARS-CoV was transmitted from civet cats to humans and MERS-CoV from dromedary camels to humans. Several known coronaviruses are circulating in animals that have not yet infected humans.

Common Symptoms:

Common signs of infection include

  •  fever
  • cough
  • shortness of breath
  • breathing difficulties.
  •  infection causing pneumonia,
  • severe acute respiratory syndrome
  • kidney failure.

Prevention of COVID – 19

Till date, there is no specific medicine recommended to prevent or treat the new coronavirus (2019-nCoV), those infected with the virus should receive appropriate care to relieve and treat symptoms, and those with severe illness should receive optimized supportive care.

However Following  simple hygiene steps will keep us safe  & healthy against the virus:

  • Wash your hands often
  • Covering mouth and nose when coughing and sneezing.
  • Thoroughly cooking meat and eggs.
  • Avoid close contact sick people
  • Wear a mask  when you are coughing & sneezing
  • Avoid crowded places like  bus stations, railway stati

Few Myths Busters

Can pets at home spread the new coronavirus (2019-nCoV)?
According to WHO research at present, there is no evidence that companion animals/pets such as dogs or cats can be infected with the new coronavirus. However, it is always a good idea to wash your hands with soap and water after contact with pets. This protects you against various common bacteria such as E.coli and Salmonella that can pass between pets and humans.

Do vaccines against pneumonia protect you against the new coronavirus?
No. Vaccines against pneumonia, such as pneumococcal vaccine and Haemophilus influenza type B (Hib) vaccine, do not provide protection against the new coronavirus.

The virus is so new and different that it needs its own vaccine. Researchers are trying to develop a vaccine against 2019-nCoV, and WHO is supporting their efforts.

Although these vaccines are not effective against 2019-nCoV, vaccination against respiratory illnesses is highly recommended to protect your health.

Are antibiotics effective in preventing and treating the new coronavirus?
No, antibiotics do not work against viruses, only bacteria.

The new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is a virus and, therefore, antibiotics should not be used as a means of prevention or treatment.

However, if you are hospitalized for the 2019-nCoV, you may receive antibiotics because bacterial co-infection is possible.

COVID-19 virus can be transmitted in areas with hot and humid climates
From the evidence so far, the COVID-19 virus can be transmitted in ALL AREAS, including areas with hot and humid weather. Regardless of climate, adopt protective measures if you live in, or travel to an area reporting COVID-19. The best way to protect yourself against COVID-19 is by frequently cleaning your hands. By doing this you eliminate viruses that may be on your hands and avoid infection that could occur by then touching your eyes, mouth, and nose.

We’re sure, you now have a fair idea of what CORONA VIRUS  disease  is all about and the way it could impact your life. Please seek  immediate medical attention at the nearest healthcare centre if you find the COVID -19 symptoms, don’t ignore the symptoms as there is no medicine available at present.